2.a) Carbon tetrachloride is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4. It is a
colorless liquid with a “sweet” smell.
quid with a “sweet” smell.
i. Using the ground state electron configuration and excited state electron
configuration explain the hybridization of the central Carbon (C) atom. (7 Marks)
ii. Identify the orbitals that overlap to form the C-Cl bond. Draw a diagram to show
the orbital overlap. (3 Marks)
iii. What is the bond angle of CCl4? (1 Mark)
b) Consider a Fluorine atom (F) and a Fluorine anion (F-). Which of these two species would
you expect to have a larger radius? Explain your answer. (5 Marks)
c) Explain why the first ionization energy of Aluminum (Al) is less than that of Magnesium
(Mg). (4 Marks)
d) Assume the atom Oxygen(O) can form both cationic(O+) and anionic(O-) species. Place
the following species in order of increasing first ionization energy, starting with the lowest.
O+, O, O-
a) Sea water contains roughly 28.0 g of NaCl per liter. (NaCl molar mass = 58.44 gmol-1).
i. Calculate the number of moles of NaCl in a liter of sea water. (2 Marks)
ii. Calculate the molarity of NaCl in sea water. (4 Marks)
iii. Calculate the mass by volume percent (W/V) of NaCl in sea water. (4 Marks)
8.1) A hypothetical element exists as two isotopes: I = 42.00 amu and II = 49.00 amu. If the percent
bundance of isotope I is (1.94x10^1)%, what would be the calculated atomic mass (in amu)?
2) A hypothetical element exists as two isotopes: I = 78.00 amu and II = 84.00 amu. If the atomic mass of this element is found to be 80.33 amu, which isotope must be more abundant?
3) If the hypothetical polyatomic ion ThOM2- is called "thomite", what would be the formula and name of the acid formed by this ion?
4) How many atoms of hydrogen are there in a sample of (4.00x10^2) grams of NH3(g)?
5) How many O (oxygen) atoms are there in (6.40x10^2) grams of H3PO4?
6) How many moles of fluorine atoms are there in (5.80x10^2) grams of SF4?
7) When 3.50 g of titanium (Ti) reacts with oxygen, the resulting oxide compound weighs 5.84 g. What is the empirical formula of this oxide?
8) How many moles of molecules are there in (6.70x10^2) grams of CH4?
9) A chemical is found to be 80.0% C and the rest is H. If the molar mass of this chemical is known to be 90.2 g/mol, what is the molecular formula?