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ooking at how likely a given email is to be spam based on the words it contains. In particular, in this problem we’re going to count how often words are present in spam emails within some set of training data (which here means a set of emails that have already been marked as spam or not spam manually).
We have already started to write a function spam_score(spam_file, not_file, word), which takes in two filenames, along with a target word (a lowercase string). Both filenames refer to text files which must be in the same directory as hw07.py (we’ve provided several such files in hw07files.zip). The text files contain one email per line (really just the subject line to keep things simple) - you can assume that these emails will be a series of words separated by spaces with no punctuation. The first file contains emails that have been identified as spam, the second contains emails that have been identified as not spam.
Since you haven’t learned File I/O yet, we’ve provided code that opens the two files and puts the data into two lists of strings (where each element is one line - that is, one email). You then must complete the function, so that it returns the spam score for the target word. The spam score is an integer representing the total number of times the target word occurs across all the spam emails, minus the total number of times the word occurs in not-spam emails. Convert all words to lowercase before counting, to ensure capitalization does not throw off the count.

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ds. Construct a box plot to display these data
B) Describe the distribution of the data based on the boxplot you draw
C) Name 2 other types of graphical displays that would be suitable to represent the data and distribution. Provide a justification for your answers.

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ies examined in class. This paper is not a literature review, though a literature review is part of your work. As this course takes place in a compressed timeline, I provided some suggestions for research topics. Feel free to use one of these as a springboard or propose your own.
At the end of the second week of class, students submit a three-page research paper prospectus. A research prospectus is a preliminary plan for conducting a study. This is not a detailed and technical research proposal, but rather, an analysis of the issues likely confronted in such a study. In essence, it is a preliminary proposal of work.
Research Paper Prospectus Elements
To complete the Research Paper Prospectus, consider the following elements. While the prospectus is limited to three pages of body content, remember, students must cover each of these areas as relevant to the plan for research:
Research Problem. What is the research problem? A problem is a situation when left untreated, produces a negative consequence for a group, an institution, or a(n) individual(s). What makes it a problem? For whom? Who says so?
Assumptions. On what assumptions is the work based? Which assumptions are verifiable in literature? Which assumptions are speculative?
Theoretical Issues. What theoretical issues arise from the study? For example, "theoretically," how is the problem and suspected results explained to other scholars? Is there a behavior view? A social systems view? Are there other theoretical orientations to consider in the study's design?
Literature Review. What, in general, does the literature say about the topic? While more development is expected for the final paper, a review of major theories, research, and writers in the field is needed.
Research Questions. Based on the problem, what are the research questions to be answered? How and why will answering the questions contribute to solving the research problem? Remember....a research question can only be answered with empirical data or information.
General Research Plan. In general, what research is necessary to answer the research question. What kind of data is needed? Specify the type, such as surveys, observations, or interviews. Who is to be studied and why? How is the data reduced and made sense of? How is the quality of the data assured?
Anticipated Difficulties and Pitfalls. What kind of difficulties and pitfalls are expected in a study of this nature? What can be done to prevent them or minimize their effects?
Anticipated Benefits. Who will benefit from the fact this research is undertaken? How? Why? Who might be disturbed by this proposed study? How? Why?
Paper Format Requirements
The Research Paper Prospectus is presented in standard APA 7 format, with a cover page, running head, body, and references list. The cover page and references do not count toward the three-page requirement. The body uses headers and in-text citations in the manner prescribed by APA. Students should include any references they know at the time they submit the prospectus, though it is expected the references may change or increase in number. Full and complete adherence to APA is required.
APA Basics
As APA format is the rule, remember the formatting rules shown on the Sample Paper (Links to an external site.):
Times New Roman, 12pt
1" margins on all sides
Double spaced, with extra line spaces removed (see below)
Page numbers in the upper right
Two spaces after concluding punctuation
150-250 word abstract with keywords
APA-style in-text citations and quote format. Use the Purdue OWL in-text citation information (Links to an external site.)to help you.
Alphabetical (by author) reference page with correct reference format. DO NOT trust the reference generator in your word processing program. It is WRONG! Use the Purdue OWL references information (Links to an external site.)to correctly structure references and do so manually.

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consulting basis by Loving Organic Foods. In order to get a better idea of what might have motivated customers’ buying habits you are asked to analyze the ages of the customers who have purchased organic foods over the past 3 months. Past research done by the Diligent Consulting Group has shown that different age groups buy certain products for different reasons. Loving Organic Foods has sent a survey to 200 customers who have previously purchased organic foods, and 124 customers have responded. The survey includes age data of past customers who purchased organic foods in the previous quarter.
Case Assignment
Using Excel, create a frequency distribution (histogram) of the age data that was captured from the survey. You should consider the width of the age categories (e.g., 5 years, 10 years, or other). That is, which age category grouping provides the most useful information? Once you have created this histogram, determine the mean, median, and mode.
After you have reviewed the data, write a report to your boss that briefly describes the results that you obtained. Make a recommendation on how this data might be used for marketing purposes. Be sure to conduct adequate research on organic foods industry, organic market analysis, and healthy food industry using IBISWorld database or other databases such as Business Source Complete (EBSCO) and Business Source Complete - Business Searching Interface in our online library. Provide a brief description on the industry background and the consumer changing attitudes and behavior toward healthy lifestyles. Also identify the customer demographics of organic food industry and explain how the customers of Loving Organic Foods are different from this target market.
Data: Download the Excel-based data file with the age data of the 124 customers: Data chart for BUS520 Module 1 Case. Use these data in Excel to create your histogram.
Assignment Expectations
Excel Analysis
Complete analysis in Excel using the Histogram function. Please watch the following video which covers how to create a histogram in Excel: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GL91GrVf3EY
If you are not so familiar with Excel, refer to the following link on Excel training videos: https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Excel-training-9bc05390-e94c-46af-a5b3-d7c22f6990bb?ui=en-US&rs=en-US&ad=US
Check the professional market research reports from the IBISWorld database to conduct the industry analysis. IBISWorld can be accessed in the Trident Online Library.
IBISWorld Overview (n.d.). IBISWorld, Inc., New York, NY.
IBISWorld Forecast (n.d.). IBISWorld, Inc., New York, NY.
IBISWorld Data and Sources (n.d.). IBISWorld, Inc., New York, NY.
IBISWorld Navigation Tips (n.d.). IBISWorld, Inc., New York, NY.
Written Report
Length requirements: 4–5 pages minimum (not including Cover and Reference pages). NOTE: You must submit 4–5 pages of written discussion and analysis. This means that you should avoid use of tables and charts as “space fillers.”
Provide a brief introduction to/background of the problem.
Provide a brief description of organic food industry and target market characteristics such as their demographics, lifestyles and shopping behaviors.
Provide a written analysis that supports your Histogram age groups (bins).
Based on your analysis of the histogram data, provide complete and meaningful recommendations as the data relates to Loving Organic Foods’s marketing strategy.
Write clearly, simply, and logically. Use double-spaced, black Verdana or Times Roman font in 12 pt. type size.
Have an introduction at the beginning to introduce the topics and use keywords as headings to organize the report.
Avoid redundancy and general statements such as "All organizations exist to make a profit." Make every sentence count.
Paraphrase the facts using your own words and ideas, employing quotes sparingly. Quotes, if absolutely necessary, should rarely exceed five words.
Upload both your written report and Excel file to the case 1 Dropbox.

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eople experienced a group-based behavioral intervention, which involved weekly meetings with a trained interventionist for a period of six months. The following data are the numbers of pounds lost for 14 people, based on means and standard deviations given in the article. Assume the population is approximately normal. Perform a hypothesis test to determine whether the mean weight loss is greater than 20 pounds. Use the =α0.10 level of significance and the critical value method.
22.5 28.5 7.6 24.1 21.5 12.9 17.3
21.2 37.6 33.8 12.1 36.3 24.1 19.4

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e based on the provided data set.
You can draw the tree electronically, or draw it by hand and scan or photograph a copy—or use any other appropriate means you wish.
2. How many homoplasies are in the tree? Give the nucleotide position number(s) and tell what character states were independently derived in which species.
3. Two major clades are revealed by the tree. List the species in each clade. What can you say in general about the geographic distribution of each clade?
4. In cases where two species of Map Turtle occupy the same river system, are those species each other’s nearest relatives? Considering their phylogeny and distribution, what speciation events (including such factors as migration, vicariance, etc.) would you predict led to the species found in these rivers and their current distributions?

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oups were used (lawyer, physical therapist, cabinetmakers, and system analysts). The results obtained for a sample of 5 individuals from each groups. Using the "ANOVA Output" below, please answer the following questions ( Use the significance level 5%).
Q1. The value of the test statistic is ____________
QUESTION 2
Q2. The p- value of the test is _________________
QUESTION 3
Q3. At the 5% significance level, the null hypothesis is rejected if the value of the F statistics is >= _________________
QUESTION 4
Q4. Interpret the ANOVA result at the 5% significance level. Is there any difference in the job satisfaction among the four occupational groups? Answer either yes or no. Explain the reason of your answer statistically.
QUESTION 5
Data from a Trucking Company is Southern California were utilized to examine the relationship among total daily travel time (y), miles to traveled (X1), and the number of deliveries (x2). Based on the "Regression Output" below, please answer the following questions.
Q5. The number of sample used in this regression analysis is______________
QUESTION 6
Q6. What is the value of the coefficient of determination?
QUESTION 7
Q7. What is the F test statistic value for the regression model significane test?
QUESTION 8
Q8. What is the predicted travel time for X1 =95, and X2= 6?
QUESTION 9
Q9. Is X2 (number of deliveries) related to Y (travel time)? Answer either yes or no. Explain the reason of your answer statistically.
ATTACHED ARE GRAPHS

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ir ice cream. At the current exchange rate of .989 USD to 1 Swiss franc (CHF), the cost of chocolate in francs of ₣40,317,492 comes to $39,874,000. Variations in the exchange rate will affect Ken and Terry’s earnings before tax.
a. Assume no hedge is undertaken and exchange rates may take the values of .969, .989. 1.009, and 1.029. What will be the impact on Ken and Terry’s earnings before tax with each exchange rate? (6 points)
b. You suggest a call option with a strike price of .989 and a call premium of 2.35%. Show how this will affect Ken and Terry’s cash flows. (6 points)
c. Another option is to enter into a forward contract at a forward offer rate of .999. How will this affect Ken and Terry’s cash flows? (5 points)
d. Do you recommend the call option or the forward contract? Explain. (3 points)
4. Ken and Terry’s would like to undertake a corporate value-at-risk calculation based on two risk factors of cream and chocolate. They estimate the following “returns” on these inputs by the mark-up on their finished product relative to input prices. Cream is more prevalent than chocolate; it makes up 80% of the mark-up while chocolate makes up 20%. Other data they have gathered is as follows:
Cream: expected return = 30%
variance of return = .10
Chocolate: expected return = 20%
variance of return = .06
covariance of cream and chocolate = .04
What is the largest decrease in return that Ken and Terry can expect with 99% confidence?
(10 points)

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t way to do that would be to investigate her students’ test performance in a number of ways.
The first thing she did was separate her students’ test scores based on the time of day she held her lectures (morning vs evening). Next she recorded the type of test students were writing (multiple choice vs short answer). She selected a random sample of students from her morning (n = 6) and evening (n = 7) classes (total of 13) and recorded scores from two of their tests as shown below.
Morning
Evening
Multiple Choice
Short Answer
Multiple Choice
Short Answer
66
74
70
45
64
55
80
55
72
77
78
55
70
57
84
60
61
58
64
70
67
69
84
60
70
63
DATA Set 1:
Good morning sunshine. Is Time of Day important?
1. Prof. Maya recently read an article that concluded students retained more information when attending classes in the morning. Based on this finding she thought students in her morning class might have performed differently on their Short Answer test scores when compared to students in her evening class. Does the data support her hypothesis? [15 points]
Multiple Guess! Does Exam Type matter?
2. Prof. Maya also knew that students often did better on multiple-choice tests because they only have to recognize the information (rather than recall it). Given this, she thought students attending the morning class might perform differently on the Multiple-Choice test when compared to the Short Answer test. Does the data support her hypothesis? [15 points]
DATA Set 2:
We’ll try anything once. Does the new Tutorial Plan work?
3. Combining all of her students (and ignoring time of day), Prof. Maya asked her TAs to try a new – and very expensive - tutorial study plan. She then chose a random sample of 20 students to receive the new study plan and another sample of 30 to continue using the old study plan. Following an in-class quiz, she divided the students into 3 levels of achievement (below average, average, and above average), and then created the frequency table below. Does the new expensive tutorial study plan improve student performance? [15 points]
Below average
Average
Above Average
New plan
7
7
6
Old plan
6
15
9
DATA Set 3:
How are YOU doing?
4. Finally, Prof. Maya thinks that her 2018 class is doing better than her 2017 class did. She decided to collect a sample of test scores from the students in her course this year (combining all of the groups) and compare the average with her previous year’s class average. Does the data support her hypothesis? [15 points]
The 2017 class average = 63%
The 2018 sample size = 25
The 2018 sample standard deviation = 11
The 2018 sample average = use your actual midterm mark (yes, you the student reading this :)
Bonus: What does it all mean?
5. Bonus: IF Prof. Maya had complete control of how and when she ran her course in 2018, considering all the info you just found in the 3 data sets, write a brief statement of how you would recommend she set-up the course next year – and explain why. [5 points]

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t way to do that would be to investigate her students’ test performance in a number of ways.
The first thing she did was separate her students’ test scores based on the time of day she held her lectures (morning vs evening). Next she recorded the type of test students were writing (multiple choice vs short answer). She selected a random sample of students from her morning (n = 6) and evening (n = 7) classes (total of 13) and recorded scores from two of their tests as shown below.
DATA Set 1:
Good morning sunshine. Is Time of Day important?
1. Prof. Maya recently read an article that concluded students retained more information when attending classes in the morning. Based on this finding she thought students in her morning class might have performed differently on their Short Answer test scores when compared to students in her evening class. Does the data support her hypothesis? [15 points]
Multiple Guess! Does Exam Type matter?
2. Prof. Maya also knew that students often did better on multiple-choice tests because they only have to recognize the information (rather than recall it). Given this, she thought students attending the morning class might perform differently on the Multiple-Choice test when compared to the Short Answer test. Does the data support her hypothesis? [15 points]
DATA Set 2:
We’ll try anything once. Does the new Tutorial Plan work?
3. Combining all of her students (and ignoring time of day), Prof. Maya asked her TAs to try a new – and very expensive - tutorial study plan. She then chose a random sample of 20 students to receive the new study plan and another sample of 30 to continue using the old study plan. Following an in-class quiz, she divided the students into 3 levels of achievement (below average, average, and above average), and then created the frequency table below. Does the new expensive tutorial study plan improve student performance? [15 points]
Below average
Average
Above Average
New plan
7
7
6
Old plan
6
15
9
DATA Set 3:
How are YOU doing?
4. Finally, Prof. Maya thinks that her 2018 class is doing better than her 2017 class did. She decided to collect a sample of test scores from the students in her course this year (combining all of the groups) and compare the average with her previous year’s class average. Does the data support her hypothesis? [15 points]
The 2017 class average = 63%
The 2018 sample size = 25
The 2018 sample standard deviation = 11
The 2018 sample average = use your actual midterm mark (yes, you the student reading this :)
Bonus: What does it all mean?
5. Bonus: IF Prof. Maya had complete control of how and when she ran her course in 2018, considering all the info you just found in the 3 data sets, write a brief statement of how you would recommend she set-up the course next year – and explain why. [5 points]

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patient satisfaction survey data, and you were asked to review the data and consider the impact on consumer relations.
Review the Patient Satisfaction Survey below:
Hospital Patient Satisfaction Survey
Patient Satisfaction Indicator
Current Performance
Goal
Hospital cleanliness
8.2
> = 9.2
Overall patient satisfaction with doctors
7.6
> = 9.2
Average patient wait time
13 minutes
< = 15 minutes
Overall patient satisfaction with hospital
9.7
> = 9.2
Complete the following prompts based on the chart provided above.
Patient satisfaction strength
Identify a patient satisfaction indicator that could be considered a strength for the hospital based on its current performance and the hospital’s goal.
Identify a strategy the hospital could use so that this indicator remains a strength in patient satisfaction.
Patient satisfaction weakness
Identify a patient satisfaction indicator that could be considered a weakness for the hospital based on its current performance and the hospital’s goal.
Identify a strategy the hospital could use so that this indicator does not remain a weakness in patient satisfaction.
[Insert Response]
Patient satisfaction opportunity
Identify a patient satisfaction indicator that could be considered an opportunity for the hospital based on its current performance and the hospital’s goal.
Identify a strategy the hospital could use so that this indicator could transform into a strength in patient satisfaction.
[Insert Response]
Explain the importance of effective consumer relations in the health care industry.
Consider the role data (e.g., surveys) plays in effective consumer relations.
Consider the role communication plays in effective consumer relations.
[Insert Response]
Cite any peer-reviewed, scholarly, or similar references used to support your assignment
[Insert references used]
Click the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

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1.AU MAT 120 Systems of Linear Equations and Inequalities Discussion

mathematicsalgebra Physics