1.1. Your 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)benzofuran was enriched in one enantiomer. Assuming that
generally cannot be made to produce either enantiomer as desired, use your knowledge of organic
reactions to design a reaction sequence to convert your sample to the other enantiomer. Show
reaction(s) and appropriate reagents.
2. Consider applying biocatalytic reduction with carrots to the following two ketones: tert-butyl
methyl ketone, and 3-hexanone. Which would you expect to give higher enantioselectivity in
biocatalytic reduction? Explain your answer.
2.Part I. Reaction Paper
Read and understand the text below. Follow outline in writing your reaction paper at least 250-750
paper at least 250-750 words.
2. Thesis Statement
3. Supporting details
The Digital Divide: The Challenge of Technology and Equity
(1) Information technology is influence the way many of us live and work today. We use the internet to look and apply for jobs, shop, conduct research, make airline reservations, and explore areas of interest. We use Email and internet to communicate instantaneously with friends and business associates around the world. Computers are commonplace in homes and the workplace.
(2) Although the number of internet users is growing exponentially each year, most of the worlds population does not have access to computers of the internet. Only 6 percent of the population in the developing countries are connected to telephones. Although more than 94 percent of U.S households have telephones, only 56 percent
have personal computers at home and 50 percent have internet access. The lack of what most of us would consider a basic communication necessity the telephone does not occur just in developing nations. On some Native American reservations only 60 percent of the residents have a telephone. The move to wireless connectivity may eliminate the need for telephone lines, but it does not remove the barrier to equipment costs.
(3) Who has internet access? The digital divide between the populations who have access to the internet and information technology tools and those who dont is based on income, race, education, household type, and geographic location, but the gap between groups is narrowing. Eighty-five percent of households with an income
over $75,000 have internet access, compared with less than 20 percent of the households with income under $15,000. Over 80 percent of college graduates use the internet as compared with 40 percent of high school completers and 13 percent of high school dropouts. Seventy-two percent of household with two parents have internet access; 40 percent of female, single parent households do. Differences are also found among households and families from different racial and ethnic groups. Fifty-five percent of white households, 31 percent of black households, 32 percent of Latino households, 68 percent of Asian or Pacific Islander households, and 39 percent of American Indian, Eskimos, or Aleut households have access to the internet. The number of internet users who are children under nine years old and persons over fifty has more than triple since 1997. Households in inner cities are less likely to have computers and internet access than those in urban and rural areas, but the differences are no more than 6 percent.
(4) Another problem that exacerbates these disparities is that African-American, Latinos, and Native Americans hold few of the jobs in information technology. Women about 20 percent of these jobs and receiving fewer than 30 percent of the Bachelors degrees in computer and information science. The result is that women and members of the most oppressed ethnic group are not eligible for the jobs with the highest salaries at graduation. Baccalaureate candidates with degree in computer science were offered the highest salaries of all new college graduates.
(5) Do similar disparities exist in schools? Ninety-eight percent of schools in the country are wired with at least one internet connection. The number of classrooms with internet connection differs by the income level of students. Using the percentage of students who are eligible for free lunches at a school to determine income level, we see that the higher percentage of the schools with more affluent students have wired classrooms than those with high concentrations of low-income students.
(6) Access to computers and the internet will be important in reducing disparities between groups. It will require higher equality across diverse groups whose members develop knowledge and skills in computer and information technologies. The field today is overrepresented by white males. If computers and the internet are to be used to promote equality, they have to become accessible to schools cannot currently afford the equipment which needs to be updated regularly every three years or so. However, access alone is not enough; Students will have to be interacting with the technology in authentic settings. As technology has become a tool for learning in almost all courses taken by students, it will be seen as a means to an end rather than an end in itself. If it is used in culturally relevant ways, all students can benefit from its power.
4.Question 1: What is a player’s « reaction function » in a Bertrand game ?
Question 2: What is a subgame
subgame perfect Nash equilibrium?
Question 3: In which situations should we need the mixed extension of a game?
Question 4: Find, if any, all Nash equilibria of the following famous matrix game:
U (2,0) (3,3)
D (3,4) (1,2)
Question 5: What is the difference between a separating equilibrium and a pooling equilibrium
in Bayesian games?
Question 6: Give another name for, if it exists, the intersection of the players’ best-response
« functions » in a game?
Question 7: assuming we only deal with pure strategies, the Prisoner’s Dilemma is a situation
No Nash equilibrium One sub-optimal Nash equilibrium
One sub-optimal dominant profile No dominant profile
Question 8: If it exists, a pure Nash equilibrium is always a profile of dominant strategies:
Question 9: All games have at least one pure strategy Nash equilibrium:
Question 10: If a tree game has a backward induction equilibrium then it must also be a Nash
equilibrium of all of its subgames:
Question 11: The mixed Nash equilibrium payoffs are always strictly smaller than the pure
Nash equilibrium payoffs:
Question 12: Which of the following statements about dominant/dominated strategies is/are
I. A dominant strategy dominates a dominated strategy in 2x2 games.
II. A dominated strategy must be dominated by a dominant strategy in all games.
III. A profile of dominant strategies must be a pure strategy Nash equilibrium.
IV. A dominated strategy must be dominated by a dominant strategy in 2x2 games.
I, II and IV only I, II and III only II and III only
I and IV only I, III and IV only I and II only
Question 13: A pure strategy Nash equilibrium is a special case of a mixed strategy Nash
Question 14: Consider the following 2x2 matrix game:
U (3,2) (2,4)
D (-1,4) (4,3)
The number of pure and mixed Nash equilibria in the above game is:
Exercise (corresponding to questions 15 to 20 below): assume a medical doctor (M)
prescribes either drug A or drug B to a patient (P), who complies (C) or not (NC) with each of
this treatment. In case of compliance, controlled by an authority in charge of health services
quality, the physician is rewarded at a level of 1 for drug A and 2 for drug B. In case of noncompliance, the physician is « punished » at -1 level for non-compliance of the patient with
drug A and at -2 level for non-compliance with drug B. As for the compliant patient, drug A
should give him back 2 years of life saved and drug B, only 1 year of life saved. When noncompliant with drug A, the same patient wins 3 years of life (due to avoiding unexpected
allergic shock for instance), and when non-compliant with drug B, the patient loses 3 years of
Question 15: You will draw the corresponding matrix of the simultaneous doctor-patient game.
Question 16: Find, if any, the profile(s) of dominant strategies of this game.
Question 17: Find, if any, the pure strategy Nash equilibrium/equilibria of this game.
Question 18: Find, if any, the mixed strategy Nash equilibrium/equilibria of this game.
Questions 19 and 20: Now the doctor prescribes first, then the patient complies or not: draw
the corresponding extensive-form game (= question 19) AND find the subgame perfect Nash