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Core Physiology and Anatomy Topics:


The Human Body


Organization of the Human Body

All organisms are composed of cells similarly the human body is also composed of cells. It is the main building block of an organism's body while there is another term that is called tissue that means a particular function it is referred to as tissue. tissue combined to form an organ and various organs combined to perform a particular physiological function is called an organ system. The human body has 11 organ systems that work in Synergy to maintain the homeostasis and perform all the physiological functions that are necessary for living state. 11 organ systems that are present in human body integumentary system skeletal system muscular system nervous system endocrine system reproductive system digestive system respiratory system circulatory system lymphatic system and excretory system they all organ systems perform life process maintains homeostasis and they are necessary for survival of an organism.


Homeostasis and Regulation

Homeostasis is a steady state of the body that maintains the internal environment of an organism. This is also known as the condition of optimal functioning of an organism in which various variables like body temperature, body fluid level of hormones, heartbeat rate are kept within certain preset limits or homeostatic range. homeostasis is a living state or it is the defining property of a living organism. Homeostasis is maintained by performing certain physiological functions that give these variables in a steady state. Homeostasis works on mostly negative feedback mechanisms; it has three independent components that are receptor integrating centre and effector. Receptor senses the internal as well as external environment while the integrative centre processes this information and the effector gives its most suitable response to maintain this steady dynamic state of body.


Reproductive System

The ability to produce their young ones is known as reproduction. If gametes from two parents are involved in reproduction then it is called sexual mode of reproduction. In the case of humans there is only sexual mode of reproduction in which male and female are involved to produce gametes that are fertilized in the female reproductive system and the development of new office rings takes place inside the female uterus. Male reproductive system is composed of testis accessory ducts and glands and along with this there is penis as a copulatory organ. Wild female reproductive system is composed of ovary accessory ducts, uterus cervix vagina and a pair of mammary glands that assist in feeding newborn babies. There is a process known as gametogenesis in which sperm and ovum are formed through meiosis cell division that gametes when fertilized forms zygote. After formation of zygote it is implanted in the womb and placenta is formed. placenta is the connecting link between a developing embryo and mother almost after 9 month fully developed newborn babies are born. 


Genetics and Heredity

Genetics is the branch of biology in which we study the mechanism of heredity and variations. The term heredity means transmission of genetic characters from parents to offspring. Most pioneering work was done by Gregor John Mendel in 1856-57 but got recognised in 1900. W. Bateson is known as the father of genetics. 

The term variations means the differences among the individuals of the same species. These differences may be continuous due to crossing over or discontinuous due to mutation in the genome of gamete cells. Hugo de Vries discovered mutation while Thomas Hunt morgan proposed the concept of linkage and recombination. In Genetics we study about the mechanisms of transmission of genetic characters and also study about the variations that arise due to reproduction.


Circulatory and Respiratory Systems


Circulatory System

The organ system that helps in transport substances in our body forms the circulatory system. It is also known Muscular System: It is an organ system consisting of muscle tissue. Actin and myosin are the most prominent proteins that are present in them and help in relaxation and contraction of muscles. Three types of muscles are there. They are named as skeletal muscles, smooth muscles and cardiac muscles. Skeletal muscles have light and dark bands and called striated muscles and they are under voluntary control and mostly present in limbs. While smooth muscles are also called non striated muscles and are under involuntary control and present in visceral organs. In case of cardiac muscles, striations are present; they are also under involuntary control but they have an additional property of self excitability and present only in the heart which is a blood pumping organ. The muscular system is responsible for the movement of the body. It maintains the posture of the body and also circulates blood throughout the body.

As cardio-vescular system or vascular system. It consists of blood vessels which act as the circulatory pathway, blood which is a special fluid connective tissue and acts as the transporting medium and finally a muscular heart which pumps blood in our body. In humans there are three main circuits of circulation namely pulmonary circulation, systemic circulation and coronary circulation. The main function of the circulatory system is to transport gases, nutrients, hormones and waste materials. It is mesodermal in origin. Blood being fluid connective tissue, has cells of immune system and has blood clotting factors that are very essential. Human heart is myogenic and it works throughout the life of an organism. 


Blood/Hematologic System

It consists of blood and bone marrow. Hematology is the science of blood and blood forming tissues. Blood has a fluid component known as plasma which has mainly water up to 92% and rest are proteins, ions, hormones etc are dissolved. Second component is blood corpuscles consisting of red blood cells also called erythrocytes, white blood cells leukocytes in which there are lymphocytes also called cells of immunity, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils. Third component is platelets which are very crucial for blood clotting at the point of injury. Plasma without clotting proteins is called serum. It is whilte water fluid that escapes into interstitial space to form lymphatic fluid along with lymphocytes. The formation and maturation of RBC takes place in bone marrow while lymphocyte cells mature in thymus. The formation of blood corpuscles is called hematopoiesis. Main function of blood is transport of gases, transport of hormones, nutrients. It also plays a very important role in protecting our body from disease causing pathogens. Along with this this system plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis. 


Respiratory System

It is also called oxygen delivery system. It is involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases between the body and the environment. Respiratory system is made of a respiratory pathway or conducting pathway that includes the nasal passages, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes and exchange pathway having alveolar sacs in lungs. It performs two major functions that are the inspiration of oxygen and expiration of carbon dioxide gas. Respiration is further subdivided into breathing also called external respiration, exchange & transport of gases in blood vessels called internal respiration and finally cellular respiration where oxygen is uptaken by mitochondria of the cell during aerobic breakdown of glucose and as a result carbon dioxide is released as by product. Which needs to be removed immediately from cells.


Skeletal and Integumentary Systems


Skeletal System

The human skeleton is the internal solid structural framework of bones. It consists of bones, cartilage, ligament and tendon and joints. At the time of birth there are 270 bones but later they fuse and remain only 206 bones in an adult. The main component of solid ground substance in bone is calcium carbonate. The cells of bone are called osteocytes while cartilage has elastin fibre and chondrocyte cells in it along with calcium salt of hyaluronic acid. There are mainly two parts of Human skeleton system. They are named as axial and appendicular skeletons. Axial skeleton has a total of 80 bones of skull, ear ossicles, ribs, vertebral columns and sternum and 126 bones are present in the appendicular skeleton have bones of limbs and girdles. Stapis is the smallest and femur is the largest bone of the body. The main function of the skeletal system is to provide a structural framework that supports and protects soft tissues, helps in movement, production of blood cells in bone marrow and mineral homeostasis are the major functions of this system. 


Integumentary System

It consists of skin, hair, nails and exocrine glands of the body. The skin is only a few mm thick but it is the largest organ in the body. Skin is made of compound epithelial tissue. The skin and accessory structures as it performs various important functions. Some of them are acting as a physical barrier for entry of microorganisms, as a sensory organ, temperature control of the body by preventing dehydration etc. It also involves the synthesis of vitamin D and maintaining homeostasis.


Nervous and Endocrine Systems


Nervous System

It is mainly composed of neurons. Here Neurons are highly specialised cells. They can detect, receive and transmit different kinds of stimulus. The human nervous system is divided into two parts : the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system; the central nervous system includes the brain and spinal cord and it is called the site of information processing and control. The PNS comprises all the nerves of the body associated with the CNS the nerve fibres of PNS are of two types are afferent and efferent fibres. Nerves from the brain are called cranial nerves, they are 12 pairs and nerves from the spinal cord are spinal nerves that are 31 pairs. The system of neutrons makes a network which can control and coordinate the stimuli. 

Endocrine System

The term endocrine glands means ductless gland. Their secretions are called hormones. This system involves the chemical messenger which gives feedback of the hormones released by internal glands to the circulatory system. It helps in regulation of distant target organs. In humans, the hypothalamus is the neural control center for all endocrine systems. Important gland present in humans are pituitary gland, thymus gland, thyroid and parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, pineal body and reproductive gland testis in males and ovary in females. Nervous system and endocrine system are combinedly responsible for control and coordination of the human body. This system acts as the link between the  external and internal environment.


Digestive and Excretory Systems


Food and Nutrients

Food satisfies our hunger and provides energy for daily work. Our body requires certain nutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, roughage minerals and vitamins etc because our own body can not synthesize them so we are dependent on external sources. The source of the above nutrients are complex and can not provide exactly what we need so they need to be digested and simplified forms of nutrients is intaken that are useful for our body. We have holozoic mode of nutrition. In which complex food is ingested and digested. Food and nutrients perform certain functions such as giving energy, help in growth and repair of tissues, gives strength to fight against disease and help our body to function normally. 


Digestive System

To perform various functions of the body, Energy is required which is obtained from food. The process of conversion of complex indiffusible food material into simple and diffusible food by mechanical and biochemical (hydrolysis) process is termed as digestion. Digestive system is composed of an alimentary canal which is a tubular structure extending from mouth to anus. It develops from ectoderm and endoderm. Alimentary canal is further divided into the Mouth and Buccopharyngeal cavity, Oesophagus, stomach and intestine. In the alimentary canal there are certain glands which secrete digestive enzymes. Their main role is to hydrolyse complex indiffusible food into simpler and diffusible biomolecules. There are mainly five steps involved which are injection, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion. 


Excretory System

The process which is concerned with removal of nitrogenous waste material such as urea, uric acid, CO2, ammonia, salts and excess water is termed as excretion. In humans, excretory organs are also termed as organs of homeostasis. The main excretory organ in humans is the kidney. Other excretory organs are skin, liver, lungs and large intestine. Human excretory system is composed of a pair of kidneys and their blood supplies, a pair of ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The functional unit of the kidney is called a nephron. There are three main steps of urine formation that are glomerular ultrafiltration, tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion. Micturition is the urge to remove urine. Kidneys are also the main osmoregulatory organ. Secretions from the kidney also maintain blood pressure. 



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How do I study anatomy and physiology?


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