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Core Biology topics

 

Macromolecules

Macromolecules define as "molecule having a very large number of atoms" such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.

 

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrate is a naturally occurring compound such as sugars, starches, celluloses and gums, that present in living tissues and food.

 

Lipids:

These are the  most  important component of living cells, and it is  defined as a substance that is insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform.

 

Protein:

Proteins are structural units of Amino Acid. To form proteins, amino acids are integrated into long chains.

 

Nucleic Acids:

Nucleic acids are large biomolecules that complete the structure of DNA and RNA.

 

Diffusion:

Diffusion is the transport of molecules from a higher concentration area to a lower concentration area whereas Osmosis is the movement of water through a semipermeable membrane.

 

Homeostasis:

Homeostasis is the ability of an organism's to keep a constant internal environment of cell and body.

 

Water and Electrolyte Balance:

Electrolyte present in blood and other fluid of an organism such as Sodium, potassium, phosphate etc. Drinking too much water can cause electrolyte levels balance. 

 

Energy and Metabolism:

Metabolism is defined as the chemical reactions of a living organism that produced energy. 

 

Cell Biology:

Branch of Biology that study living cell.

 

Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes are single-celled organism that lack of nucleus or other specialized organelles. e.g - Bacteria, archaea etc.

 

Bacteria & Archaea

Bacteria are single-cell prokaryotic organism and the cell wall is of typically contain peptidoglycan whereas Archaea lack the peptidoglycan in their cell wall.

 

Eukaryotes Cells

Eukaryotic cell have a distinct nucleus. e.g- fungal cell, plant cell, and animal cell. 

 

Cells

Cells are the smallest units and these are building blocks of life.

 

Cell Membrane

Cell membrane is a double layer of protein and lipid that surrounds a cell. Cell membrane is also called Plasma membrane.

 

Organelle

Cellular structures of a living cell.

 

Nucleus

The nucleus is an important membrane-bounded organelle of a living cell that contain genetic materials i.e, DNA and RNA.

 

DNA:

It is a carrier for genetic information that is self-replicating and makes up the majority of chromosomes in nearly all living organisms.

 

RNA

A ribose sugar, a phosphate molecule, and the nitrogenous bases guanine, adenine, cytosine, and uracil make up this polymer molecule.

 

mRNA:

A single strand RNA molecule that transfers information from DNA to ribosomes for protein synthesis. 

 

tRNA:  

Transfer RNAs are amino acid carriers that carry the necessary amino acids to the ribosome. 

 

rRNA

It is a molecular component that form major portion of ribosomes and its role is in translating mRNA.

 

Ribosomes:

These are microscopic cellular organelles consisting of RNA and other related proteins and its function is protein synthesis. 

 

Lysosomes

These are membrane-bound cellular organelles that contain digestive enzymes and their role is to digest worn out cell organelles or cells.

 

Endoplasmic Reticulum:  

This is an organelle found in cells of eukaryotes appearing as continuous series of sacs that are flattened and it plays a role in transporting and packaging of proteins and lipids.

 

Golgi Apparatus:

It's a cellular organelle that is membrane-bound and it serves to transport, modify, and package proteins and lipids.

 

Mitochondria

It's a double-membraned organelle with a heavily folded inner membrane where biochemical processes of respiration and energy production take place.

 

Cellular respiration

This refers to reactions and mechanisms that generate ATP from various food substrates.

 

mtDNA

Mitochondrial DNA refers to the DNA molecule that is located within the mitochondria of a cell.

 

Chloroplasts

Chloroplasts are organelles of a plant and algal cells that carry out photosynthesis.

 

Photosynthesis

It is the process  used by plants and other organisms  to convert light energy  to cellular energy.

 

Plastome:

A type of organelle which is found in plants and protocists of genome of plastid is called plastome.

 

cpDNA:

Chloroplasts have their own DNA, which is commonly referred to as cpDNA. When referring to the genomes of other plastids, it is often referred to as the plastome. It was discovered for the first time in 1962. In 1986, Sugiura and colleagues published the first complete chloroplast genome sequences for Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) and Ozeki et al. published the first complete chloroplast genome sequences for Marchantia polymorpha (liverwort).

 

Hundreds of chloroplast DNAs from various species have been sequenced since then, but they are mostly from land plants and green algae—glaucophytes, red algae, and other algae groups are severely underrepresented, which could lead to some bias in perceptions of "typical" chloroplast DNA structure and content.

 

Vacuoles:

In cells, vacuoles are storage bubbles  and these can be seen  in both animal and plant cells, but plant cells are much larger. It  can store food or any other nutrients that a cell requires to survive. These vacuoles  can even store waste products in order to keep the rest of the cell clean.


Cell division:

A parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells in the process of cell division. Normally, cell division occurs as part of a larger cell cycle.

 

Cell reproduction:

Cellular reproduction is the process by which cells duplicate their contents before dividing to produce two cells with similar, if not identical, contents. Cell reproduction does not always result in the formation of new cells that are self-contained. It is also essential for the growth and development of many human cells, as well as their day-to-day maintenance.

 

Binary fission:

The process of asexual reproduction in bacteria is known as binary fission. A single organism divides into two separate organisms during binary fission. In eukaryotes, binary fission also refers to the duplication of organelles. Before mitosis, mitochondria and other organelles must reproduce via binary fission, ensuring that each cell has a sufficient number of organelles.

 

Mitosis:

Mitosis is a cell division process that divides one cell into two genetically identical daughter cells. The cell's chromosomes are copied and then distributed evenly between the two new nuclei of the daughter cells at various stages of mitosis.

 

Meiosis:

Meiosis is a process in this process  single cell divides twice to produce four cells with half the amount of genetic information as the original cell. These cells are also called as  sperm and eggs, which is present  in males and females.

 

Metabolism:

Metabolism is a term that refers to all chemical reactions that take place in order for cells and organisms to stay alive. Metabolism can be divided into two categories for ease of understanding:
 
• The breakdown of molecules to produce energy is known as catabolism.
• Anabolism is the process of cells synthesizing all of the compounds they need.
 
Nutrition it is  related to metabolism and term  "bioenergetics" refers to the biochemical or metabolic pathways by this process it obtains  energy. One of the most important term  of metabolism is energy formation.

 

Metabolic Pathway:

A metabolic pathway is a series of actions or interactions between genes and their products that result in the formation or modification of a system component that is required for proper biological functioning.

 

Cell Signalling:

Cell signaling is the process of cellular communication within the body that is triggered by hormones and other signaling molecules released and received by cells. Cell signaling is a vast network of communication that exists between and within each cell of our body.

 

Receptor:

Receptors, such as cytokine receptors, growth factor receptors, and Fc receptors, are proteins that bind to ligands and cause immune system responses by binding to them. Receptors can control membrane channels, regulate cell binding, and induce cell growth, division, and death. Signal transduction, immunotherapy, and immune responses all rely on receptors.

 

Signalling Pathways:

A series of chemical reactions in which a group of molecules in a cell collaborate to control a cell function like cell division or cell death. When a molecule, such as a hormone or growth factor, binds to a particular protein receptor on or in the cell, the cell receives signals from its environment. When the pathway's first molecule receives a signal, it activates another molecule.

 

Gene Regulation:

The process of changing  genes on and off is known as gene regulation. Cells begin to work  on particular  functions at the stage of  early development. Gene regulation makes sure the right genes are expressed at the right times. Gene regulation may also aid an organism's ability to adapt to its surroundings. Chemically altering genes and using regulatory proteins to turn genes on or off are two examples of gene regulation mechanisms.

 

Transcription Factors:

Transcription factors are proteins that aid in the conversion of DNA to RNA, a process known as transcribing. Transcription factors are proteins that initiate and regulate gene transcription, with the exception of RNA polymerase.

 

Epigenetic:

Epigenetics is the study of how your habits and environment can influence how your genes function. Epigenetic changes, unlike genetic changes, are reversible and do not alter your DNA sequence; rather, they can alter how your body interprets a DNA sequence.

 

DNA Modification:

The process of modifying an organism's genetic makeup is known as genetic modification or DNA modification. Controlled, or selective, breeding of plants and animals has been done inadvertently for thousands of years. Modern biotechnology has made it easier and faster to use genetic engineering to target a particular gene for more precise organism modification.

 

RNA Interference:

RNA interference (RNAi) is a naturally occurring posttranscriptional pathway for gene silencing that is mediated by short double-stranded RNA fragments that combine with homologous sequences in mRNAs to cause their breakdown.

 

Virology:

The study of the biology of viruses and viral diseases, including their distribution, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution, and clinical aspects, is referred to as virology.

 

Immunology:

Immunology is a branch of medicine and biological science that studies the immune system. The immune system defends us against infection in a variety of ways. When the immune system isn't working properly, it can lead to diseases like autoimmunity, allergies, and cancer.

 

Evolution:

Evolution is a process that causes changes in a population's genetic material over time. The adaptations of organisms to their evolving environments are reflected in evolution, which can result in altered genes, novel characteristics, and new species. Changes in genetic variability and allele frequencies over time are required for evolutionary processes.

 

Gregor Mendel:

Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to him being dubbed the "Father of Genetics" (1822-1884).

 

Charles Darwin:

Charles Darwin is an English biologist who is best known for his work and theories on the origin of species via natural selection in his book "On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection." The tutorial on genetics and evolution expands on his work.

 

Punnet Square:

The Punnett square is defined as  square diagram used to identify  genotypes in a cross or breeding experiment. C. Punnett, the approach's creator, is honored with the name. Biologists use the diagram to calculate the probability of an offspring inheriting a specific genotype.

 

Population:

The number of organisms of the same species which is living in the same geographic area at the same time is called population. It is capable of interbreeding to increase in number. Individuals must be able to mate with any other member of a population and produce fertile offspring for interbreeding to occur. Populations, on the other hand, contain genetic variation, and not all individuals are equally capable of surviving and reproducing.

 

Genetics:

The study of genes and inheritance in living organisms is known as genetics.

 

Taxonomy:

The practice of identifying different species, classifying them into categories, and giving them names is known as taxonomy. All living and extinct organisms are categorized into separate groups with other organisms that are similar to them and given a scientific name. Various hierarchical categories exist in the classification of organisms. Gradually, categories shift from being very broad and encompassing a wide range of organisms to being very specific and recognizing single species.

 

Botany:

A branch of science that deals with the study of plants is named as Botany. While most people associate plants with trees, shrubs, and flowers, botanically, a plant can be any living plant organism, from bacteria to the world's largest trees. Outside of the plant kingdom, fungi, lichen, algae, mosses, and other organisms like them have been scientifically classified as their own kingdom, but botany also includes and studies these species, as well as the rest of the plant kingdom.

 

Fungi:

Fungi or fungus can be defined as the kingdom of multicellular eukaryotic organisms. These are heterotrophic organisms so they cannot produce their own food. They play important roles in ecosystem nutrient cycling. Fungi reproduce sexually and asexually, and they have symbiotic relationships with both plants and bacteria.

 

Algae:

Algae are photosynthetic organisms with chlorophyll as a photosynthetic pigment. They lack the true roots, stems, and leaves that vascular plants have. Some are single-celled, while others are multicellular. They may form colonies as well. The majority of algae are found in water. Others are terrestrial, living in wet soil, on trees, and on rocks.

 

Mosses:

Are a non-vascular plant phylum. They reproduce by spores rather than seeds, and they don't have flowers, wood, or true roots.

 

Ferns:

Are a type of plant that does not produce flowers. In most cases, ferns replicate by developing spores.

 

Gymnosperms:

Are a type of plant that produces seeds without an ovary or fruit. These seeds will expose  to  air and pollination takes place  fertilizes them directly.

 

Angiosperms:

Are vascular plants that contain seeds. Flowers of ovules enclosed in an ovary are their reproductive structures.

 

ANA Grade:

The basal position of Amborellales, Nymphaeales, and Austrobaileyales in angiosperms.

 

ANITA grade:

The basal position of Amborella, Nymphaeales, and Illiciales-Trimeniaceae-Austrobaileya in angiosperms.

 

Magnoliids:

Are the smallest and oldest of the three major flowering plant "clades." These plants have features that are similar to some of the earliest flowering plants.

 

Monocotyledons, also known as monocots, are grass and grass-like flowering plants (angiosperms) that have only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon, in their seeds.

 

Dicotyledons:

Any flowering plant, or angiosperm, with a pair of leaves, or cotyledons, in the seed embryo. It is also known as dicots.

 

Zoology:

Animal kingdom members and animal life, in general, are studied in this branch of biology.


Embryology:

Is a branch of biology concerned with the development, growth, and creation of embryos.

 

Development from Single Cells up to Mammals:

A zygote (single-cell) is produced when an ovum (egg) is fertilized by a single sperm, resulting in the development of a mammal.

 

Ecology:

Is the study of the interactions between living beings, such as humans, and their physical environment; it aims to comprehend the essential links that exist between plants and animals and the environment.

 

Ecosystem:

A species or group of living organisms that live in and communicate with one another in a specific environment.

 

Biodiversity:

Refers to the diversity of life on Earth at all stages, from genes to ecosystems, which includes genetic, ecological, and cultural processes that keep life going.

 

Habitat:

Is the location where a living organism makes its home. It provides all of the necessary environmental conditions for an organism to thrive.

 

Niche:

Is a term used to define an organism's role in an environment. The physical and environmental conditions that a species needs, as well as its interactions with other species, make up its niche.

 

Biotope:

Is a region with consistent environmental conditions that provides a home for a particular group of plants and animals.

 

Environment:

The surrounding of all living and nonliving things is called environment. It can be biotic (living) or abiotic (non-living) things. Physical, chemical, and other natural forces are all part of it.

 

Vegetation:

Is a broad term for a region's plant life; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants and is the biosphere's most abundant biotic feature.

 

Paleontology:

Is the scientific study of life in the geologic past that includes the examination of plant and animal fossils preserved in rocks, even microscopic ones.

 

Plant Biology:

Is a branch of biology that studies plant life.

 

Systems Biology:

Analysis and behaviour of biological entities such as molecules , organs ,cells and organisms.

 

Marine Biology:

The study of aquatic organisms, their habits, and interactions with the environment.

 

Neural Genetics:

Is the study of how genes affect neuronal mechanisms.

 

Neural Circuits:

The analysis of a population of interconnected neurons that can take in information, process it, and respond to it.

 

 

Other Core Biology Homework Topics

 

 

Sample Biology Homework Help – Questions and Answers

 

 

1. Identify the organism which occupies more than one trophic level of an Ecosystem.

 

a) Fish 
b) Bacteria
c) Zooplanktons 
d) Green plants

 

Answer: (a)  

 

Solution: Fishes are involved in secondary and tertiary levels on an Ecosystem.

 

2. Which of the given forces does involve in the stabilization of the Double helix of DNA?

 

a) Hydrophilic interaction of water with sugar-phosphate groups  
b) Hydrogen bonds between Hydrophobic bases  
c) Disulphide linkage between covalent bases
d) Glycosidic bonds between nitrogenous bases 

 

Answer: (a) 

 

Solution: There is hydrogen bonding between sugar-phosphate groups which are located on the exterior part of the helix.

 

3. Which of the components is missing in the animal cell?

 

a) Nucleus 
b) Cell wall
c) RNA 
d) Golgi apparatus

 

Answer: (b) 

 

Solution: Cell wall is not a part of an animal cell but only found in a plant cell. 

 

 

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