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The mutations are sudden and heritable changes that occur in the organism that change the genotype of an organism. The mutations are generally recessive and harmful for the organism but they are the ultimate source of all the variations and drives evolutio
Question 1: What is the tautomeric shift?
Answer: The proton shift in the nitrogen base form tautomeric form and change base-pairing properties.
Explanation: The tautomeric shifts are less stable and occur for a very short period of time, the tautomeric forms are enol and imino forms.
Question 2: What are substitution mutations?
Answer: The mutation results in the substitution of one base pair with another.
Explanation: The substitution mutations are two types called transversion and transition mutations. Transversion mutations when purine changed with pyrimidine and transition when purine changed with purine and pyrimidine changed with a pyrimidine.
Question 3: The process through which the DNA sequence inserts itself into the new location in the genome is called?
Answer: Transposition is the process.
Explanation: The transposon is the sequence of DNA that inserts itself into the new location which alters the expression of the genome.
Question 4: The damage which is caused by the UV- radiation damage?
Answer: Pyrimidine dimers.
Explanation: The UV- radiation act as a mutagen that causes damage in the DNA and forms pyrimidine dimers. The most common type of dimers is thymine dimers.
Question 5: What are conditional mutations?
Answer: When the mutant allele expresses in certain environmental conditions.
Explanation: The conditional mutations are those which express in certain environmental conditions, such as certain mutations express with an increase in temperatures.
Question 6: What mutation cause sickle cell anemia disease?
Answer: Missense mutation.
Explanation: The missense mutation caused by the change of one base in the codon results in the conversion of glutamic acid to valine. In this disease, the shape of the RBC becomes sickle-shaped.
Question 7: What are the Non-sense mutations?
Answer: The mutations are caused by the stop codons such as UAA, UAG, UGA.
Explanation: The non-sense mutations caused because of the termination codons these codons terminate the translation process so incomplete protein will form.
Question 8: Which of the following is an example of base analogs in mutation?
Ethyl methane sulphonate.
Explanation: The base analogs are are those chemicals that have a strong structural resemblance with base pairs. Example 5- bromouracil is the base analog of thymine, and causes transition mutation.
Question 9: The mutations which are transferred from parent to offspring are called?
Answer: Hereditary mutations.
Explanation: The hereditary mutations are those that are transferred from one generation to the next generation such as from parents to offspring. They are present in every cell of the organisms.
Question 10: What is an example of transition mutation?
Answer: A→G, T⟶C.
Explanation: The transition mutations are those in which purine changed with purine and pyrimidine changed with a pyrimidine. They mainly cause because of substitution mutation.