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Transcription and Translation: 


Transcription is the process through which the RNA is formed from the DNA through RNA polymerase and translation through which the proteins are formed from the mRNA through ribosomes. The proteins are formed from amino acids. The RNA is formed in the 5’ to 3’ direction.


Transcription and Translation Sample Questions:


Question 1: The RNA is formed from which strand of DNA?


1) Coding strand
2) Transcript strand
3) Template strand
4) All of the above


Answer: 3)

Explanation: The RNA is formed in the 5’ to 3’ direction, the DNA contains two types of the strand that is template strand and coding strand. The coding strand is not used to make RNA.



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Question 2: Proofreading is very important to avoid errors and increase the efficiency of DNA replication moves in which direction?


1) 5’ to 3’ direction
2) 3’ to 5’ direction
3) Both 3’ to 5’ and 5’ to 3’ directions
4) None of the above

Answer: 2)

Explanation: Proofreading is actually an exonuclease activity to avoid errors during DNA replication and remove the wrong nucleotides if any errors occur. Without the proofreading activity, the mutation rate will be higher and cancer can be developed into the cells.



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Question 3: Which of the is not an example of general transcription factors?


4) CREB and SP1

Answer: 4)

Explanation: The General transcription factors are very important to start transcription in eukaryotic organisms and they bind with the TATA box and start transcription. CREB and SP1 bind with enhancers and activators and also influence transcription.



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Question 4: What is the kind of termination in which the stem and loop structure contain G: C rich region followed by U rich region is formed and palindromic sequences are present in transcription?


1) Rho-dependent termination
2) Rho-independent termination
3) Intrinsic termination
4) None of the above

Answer: 3)

Explanation: Intrinsic termination destabilizes the growing transcript and dissociates the single standard mRNA. So m-RNA is released.



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Question 5: Which of the following is the transcript of eukaryotic RNA polymerase III?


1) mRNA
2) mi- RNA
3) t-RNA
4) Sn RNA


Answer: 3)

Explanation: The RNA polymerase III  forms Transcript t-RNA but m-RNA and mi-RNA and snRNA are formed from RNA polymerase II.



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Question 6: Which of the following RNA polymerase are sensitive to Alpha-amanitin ( destroying angel)? 

1) RNA polymerase I
2) RNA polymerase II
3) RNA polymerase III
4) None of the above

Answer: 2)

Explanation: The Alpha-Amanitin is the poisonous mushroom produced by amanita phyllodes, which is called the death cap and destroying angel and it stops the activity of RNA polymerase II.



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Question 7: What is the action of antibiotic Actinomycin-D in the process called transcription


1) It irreversibly binds with a single strand of DNA
2) It binds with beta-subunit and blocks transcription
3) It binds with a double strand of DNA and prevents transcription
4) All of the above


Answer: 3)

Explanation: The Actinomycin-D is an antibiotic that inhibits transcription, it binds with the double strand of DNA, not with a single strand of DNA and a hybrid of DNA-RNA.



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Question 8: Which of the following RNA is the most abundant RNA in the cell?


1) mRNA
2) snRNA
3) rRNA
4) tRNA


Answer: 3) 

Explanation: The ribosomal RNA forms ribosomes with proteins. There are various types of it like, 18S, 5.8S, 5S is present in the eukaryotic cells. The ribosomes are very important for the formation of proteins.



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Question 9: Which of the following elongation factor in translation is used in translocation?


1) EF-G
2) EF-Ts
3) EF-Tu
4) None of the above

Answer: 1)

Explanation: The elongation factors are very important for the elongation of translation. EF-Tu( directs the next t-RNA to its correct position), EF-Ts( used in the regeneration of EF-Tu), and EF-G are used in the translocation process.



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Question 10: Which of the following is the correct sequence of termination codons used in translation?




Answer: 1)

Explanation: The Termination codons are UAA, UAG, and UGA used in the termination of translation, they are called the stop codons and are recognized by the release factors called RF-1 and RF-2.



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