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Core Chemistry Topics:

 

Acids and Bases:

 

Acids are defined as the species which have a tendency to donate protons H+ in its aqueous solution or accept electrons.

Whereas,

Bases are the species which accept protons H+   in its aqueous solution or donate electrons.

For example,

HCl + NH3    → Cl- + NH4+
Here, HCl donates protons and acts as an acid and NH3 accepts protons and acts as a base.

 

Alkanes, Cycloalkanes and Functional Groups:

 

Alkane- The class of hydrocarbons which form a saturated (single bond) carbon system and has a chemical formula of CnH2n+2, where ‘n’ is the number of atoms.

For example –     C2H6, n = 2

 

Cycloalkanes- The class of hydrocarbons which has two hydrogen lesser than alkanes CnH2n ,  where n   and have a ring like structure.

For example- cyclobutane;  C4H8  

  
Functional groups- The class of groups of atoms within molecules have their own specific properties and perform characteristic chemical reactions.

By today, there are a total 14 functional groups.

Each of it has arranged in order of their increasing priorities, for IUPAC Nomenclature.  

For example -  Some of list of functional groups.

 

 

list of functional groups

 

 

Atoms , Compounds and Ions:

 

Atoms – The smallest particle a chemical element is termed as atom. It was first Introduced by Dalton in 1803 AD.

The atoms are indivisible units of chemical elements that are identical for the same kind.

For example - 2 H atoms in hydrogen molecule H2

 

Compounds – These are the combinations of atoms of more than one element held together by chemical bonds.

For example-   H2O compound Composed of H and O atoms

 

Ions- These are species like atoms or molecules  carrying a net electrical charge (cation or anion).

Here, positively charged ions are called ‘cations’ and negatively charged ions as ‘anions’.

For example -      Na+   sodium atom loses an electron to give sodium ‘cation’.  

 

Buffers, Titrations and Solubility Equilibria:


Buffers – A solution of mixture of weak acid and its conjugate base or weak base and its conjugate acid is termed as buffer. The major role of it is to resist the change in pH.

For example- An acidic buffer of Acetic acid – sodium acetate  CH3COOH-CH3COONa

 

Titrations –  A quantitative analysis of determination of analyte concentration.

A standard solution of titrant (known concentration ) taken in burette , by using a suitable indicator  is added dropwise into the solution of  unknown concentration ( analyte )

For example- HCl as an analyte , is titrated against NaOH using an indicator.

 

Solubility equilibria-  It is a dynamic equilibrium between undissolved solids and its ionic species in solution.

The solubility is estimated by the solubility product that is Ksp.

For example- AgCl solid dissolved in aqueous medium


AgCl (s) --> Ag+ (aq) +  Cl- (aq)

 

Chemical Bonds:

 

It is the Intermolecular forces of attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that form the chemical compounds.

For example-

Formation of ionic bonds due to electrostatic forces between oppositely charged ions  ( NaCl ) whereas covalent bonds due to sharing of electrons (CH4)

 

Chemical Equilibrium:

 

It is a type of dynamic equilibrium that maintains concentration between reactants and products in which the rate of forward reaction equals the rate of backward reactions at certain times.  

For example -

 

 

Chemical Equilibrium

 

 

Chemical Reactions and Compounds:

 

The type of reaction between one or more reactants to give products during which there is simultaneous breaking and forming of bonds of species or compounds.

Chemical reactions are of many types

  • Decomposition reaction
  • Combination reaction
  • Displacement reaction
  • Double displacement reaction

For example-


2Mg + O2  --> 2 MgO

 

Chemical-kinetics:

 

Chemical kinetics is the branch of chemistry, that mainly deals with the rate of chemical reaction.  The rate of chemical reaction indicate the change in the concentration of reactant and product with time.  Thus, the kinetics of a chemical reaction interpret the speed and rate of change during chemical process.

 

Electro-Chemistry:

 

The branch of chemistry deals with the non spontaneous occurrence of chemical reactions due to electricity.

In this way, there is interconversion of electrical energy into chemical energy.   

For example – In electrolysis, chemical reaction takes place due to electrical energy whereas in a battery or cell the reverse process takes place.


Electronic Structure of Atom:

 

It is the arrangement of electrons on shells of a spherical atomic structure. Also the number of electrons is defined by the atomic number of an element. 

For example- lithium with atomic number = 3

 

 

Electronic Structure of Atom

 

Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions:

 

Exothermic reaction - The type of reaction which releases or produces an amount of energy in the form of heat or light.
For example-

 

 Exothermic Reactions + heat

 

 

Endothermic reaction – The type of energy which absorbs or requires a certain amount of energy in the form of heat or light.

For example-

 

Endothermic Reactions

 

 

Electronic Configuration:

 

It is the distribution of electrons within atomic orbitals in order of increasing energy of the levels, followed by some rules.

1s, 2s, 2p, 3s,3p,4s,3d, 4p,5s,4d,5p,6s,4f,5d,6p,7s,5f

For example-

 

Electronic Configuration

 

 

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases:

 

It is simple theory and it explains thermodynamic behavior of gases. This theory of  gases explains  the macroscopic  properties of  gases  like  Volume , Pressure and temperature  and also transport  properties. According to  this theory  gases  are made up of  a  large number of molecules  and they are flying  in a random  direction  with particular speed. By knowing the speed of gases molecules easily we can figure out macroscopic properties.
According to this theory Kinetic energy is directly proportional to temperature.

 

Kinetic Energy formula

 

Mass Spectrometry : 

 

It is analytical technique  and it is used to measure  mass to charge ratio of  ions and it  result  as a mass spectrum and this measurement used to calculate exact  molecular weight  and mass spectrometry  also used to identify   unknown  compounds  and also used to  determine  the structure  and chemical  properties  of molecule.

 

Mass spectrometry consists of three components such as


1. Ionization source
2. Mass analyser
3. Ion detection system.

 

Molecular Composition: 

 

It refers to the identity of molecule and relative number of the chemical elements that make any particular molecule.

For example Composition of sulphuric acid is Molecular Composition

2- Hydrogen atoms

1- Sulphur

4-Oxygen atoms

 

Nomenclature of Chemical Compounds:  

 

The chemical compounds can be named with the help of IUPAC rules. The IUPAC rules is a set of certain rules that provides a way to name any organic or inorganic chemical compounds. For example; name of CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 must be butane as there are 4 C atoms so the root word must be but- with -ane as suffix because all the C atoms are bonded single covalent bonds.

 

Net Ionic Equations:  

 

The net ionic equation is the representation of chemical equation in the form of ions. It represents the ionic form with the physical state of all the ions. The spectator ions are not part of the net ionic equation as they are placed at either side of the chemical equation. For example:

 

Net Ionic Equations

 

Nuclear Chemistry : 

 

It is a branch of chemistry  that deals with  the study   of nucleus  and nuclear reactions  in an atom .Nuclear  reactions are different  chemical reactions . In  chemical reactions   atoms combine without undergoing any change in nucleus  whereas nuclear reaction  is one  which proceeds  with a change  in the composition  of the nucleus  so  it will produce  atoms of a new element.

 

 

Nuclear Chemistry

 

Organic Chemistry : 

 

Organic chemistry  is the study  of the structure , properties , composition , preparation and reactions  of carbon containing  compounds and along with Carbon it includes Hydrogen , Nitrogen , Oxygen atoms also.

 

Oxidation Numbers :

 

It is defined as the charge of an atom  that appears  to have  on forming  ionic bonds  with other heteroatoms  and also  atom having high electronegativity even if it forms covalent bond.

 

Example:

 

Oxidation Numbers

 

Periodic Table and Periodic Properties:

 

The table of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number from lowest atomic number to highest atomic number, electronic configuration and recurring chemical properties usually arranged in rows and columns.

 

Periodic properties:  

The phenomenon of repetition of similar properties of elements at regular intervals in periodic tables is called periodicity and it is called periodic properties.

Periodic properties includes


1. Atomic radii
2.Ionisation potential
3. Electron affinity
4.Electronegativity
5. Oxidation number
6. Electro positivity
7.Valency

 

Redox Reactions: 

 

It is a type of chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons between two chemical species. One species undergoes oxidation   while another undergoes reduction. This oxidation and reduction reactions occur simultaneously. The substance which is getting reduced is known as Oxidizing agent and the substance which is getting oxidized is called reducing agent.

 

Redox Reactions

States of Matter and Intermolecular forces:

 

States of Matter: 

 

It is defined as one of the way to describe the behavior of atoms and molecules in a substance

 

There are six states of matter


1. Solid state
2. Liquid state
3.Gaseous state
4. Plasma state
5.Bose Einstein condensate state
6. Fermionic condensate state

 

Intermolecular forces: 

 

Intermolecular forces are the attraction forces or repulsion forces which act between neighboring particles such as in between atoms, molecules or ions. 

 

Stereoisomers: 

 

These are the isomeric molecules which have same molecular formula but only differ in spatial arrangement

Example:


Cis –but-2-ene
Trans -But -2-ene

 

Stoichiometry:  

 

It is a branch of chemistry  that deals  with  the application of the  law of definite proportions  and of the conservation of mass and it is the study of  quantitative  relationship or ratios  between two or more substances  undergoing  physical change  or chemical change. Stoicheion  means element  and metron  is a measure  and it also deals  with the  mass  or volumes of products and reactants.

 

Solids and Liquids:

 

Solids:

Solid is one of the fundamental states of matter and its molecules are closely packed together and this state of matter is having least kinetic energy. Solids are characterized by structural rigidity  and for moving solid objects   one definitely needs to apply force to the surface.

 

Liquids:

Liquids are substances which have an indefinite shape, size and definite volume and are incompressible, loosely packed and free flowing state of matter.

 

Solutions: 

 

Solution is a homogeneous mixture and it consists of two or more components. Size of particles in solution is smaller than 1 nm. All the solutions contain two common components one is solute and other one is solvent.

Solute quantity in solution is very less and solvent quantity in solution is very high compared to solute.

Examples: Sugar in water, salt in water

 

Thermodynamics:  

 

Thermodynamics is the branch of physical chemistry and it deals with heat, work and temperature and it interrelates this parameter with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state.

 

 

Other Core Chemistry Homework Topics

 

 

 

Sample Chemistry Homework Help – Questions and Answers

 

1.In the addition reaction between 1-butyne and hydrogen iodide, two different products can be formed. Identify the name of a major product.

 

  1. 2,2-diiodobutane
  2. 2,3-diiodobutane
  3. 2,4-diiodobutane
  4. 2,2-iodobutane

 

Answer: (a)  

 

Explanation: 1-butyne is a terminal alkyne in which the triple bonded C atoms are placed at one of the terminal of the molecule.  The addition of HI follows the Markovnikov addition (electrophilic addition reaction) that leads to more stable product. Two products are 2-iodo-1-butene and 2,2-diiodobutane.

 

2. When 3-methyl-3-chlorohexane is heated to boiling together with NaOH (aq), 3-methyl-3-hexanol is formed as the main organic product. Which type of mechanism is followed by the reaction? 

 

  1. nucleophilic rearrangement reaction
  2. nucleophilic addition reaction
  3. nucleophilic substitution reaction
  4. electrophilic substitution reaction

 

Answer: (c) 

 

Explanation: The reaction follows the nucleophilic substitution reaction. The mechanism proves the reaction of 3-methyl-3-chlorohexane with NaOH (aq) to form 3-methyl-3-hexanol as a nucleophilic substitution reaction. Here nucleophile OH- attacks on more stable tertiary carbocation formed during SN1 mechanism.

 

3. What is the rational name of the major product formed when a solution of 2-methyl-1-butene is added hydrogen iodide, HI?  

 

  1. 2-iodo-4-methylbutane
  2. 2-iodo-3-methylbutane
  3. 2-iodo-2-methylbutane
  4. 2-iodo-2-ethylbutane

 

Answer: (c) 

 

Explanation: The 2-methyl-1-butene can form primary and secondary carbocation as intermediate. Due to hyper conjugation, secondary carbocation is more stable than primary carbocation. Therefor; secondary carbocation forms as major product and primary carbocation forms as minor product.

 

 

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