Acids are defined as the species which have a tendency to donate protons H+ in its aqueous solution or accept electrons.
Bases are the species which accept protons H+ in its aqueous solution or donate electrons.
HCl + NH3 → Cl- + NH4+
Here, HCl donates protons and acts as an acid and NH3 accepts protons and acts as a base.
Alkane- The class of hydrocarbons which form a saturated (single bond) carbon system and has a chemical formula of CnH2n+2, where ‘n’ is the number of atoms.
For example – C2H6, n = 2
Cycloalkanes- The class of hydrocarbons which has two hydrogen lesser than alkanes CnH2n , where n and have a ring like structure.
For example- cyclobutane; C4H8
Functional groups- The class of groups of atoms within molecules have their own specific properties and perform characteristic chemical reactions.
By today, there are a total 14 functional groups.
Each of it has arranged in order of their increasing priorities, for IUPAC Nomenclature.
For example - Some of list of functional groups.
Atoms – The smallest particle a chemical element is termed as atom. It was first Introduced by Dalton in 1803 AD.
The atoms are indivisible units of chemical elements that are identical for the same kind.
For example - 2 H atoms in hydrogen molecule H2
Compounds – These are the combinations of atoms of more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
For example- H2O compound Composed of H and O atoms
Ions- These are species like atoms or molecules carrying a net electrical charge (cation or anion).
Here, positively charged ions are called ‘cations’ and negatively charged ions as ‘anions’.
For example - Na+ sodium atom loses an electron to give sodium ‘cation’.
Buffers – A solution of mixture of weak acid and its conjugate base or weak base and its conjugate acid is termed as buffer. The major role of it is to resist the change in pH.
For example- An acidic buffer of Acetic acid – sodium acetate CH3COOH-CH3COONa
Titrations – A quantitative analysis of determination of analyte concentration.
A standard solution of titrant (known concentration ) taken in burette , by using a suitable indicator is added dropwise into the solution of unknown concentration ( analyte )
For example- HCl as an analyte , is titrated against NaOH using an indicator.
Solubility equilibria- It is a dynamic equilibrium between undissolved solids and its ionic species in solution.
The solubility is estimated by the solubility product that is Ksp.
For example- AgCl solid dissolved in aqueous medium
AgCl (s) --> Ag+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)
It is the Intermolecular forces of attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that form the chemical compounds.
Formation of ionic bonds due to electrostatic forces between oppositely charged ions ( NaCl ) whereas covalent bonds due to sharing of electrons (CH4)
It is a type of dynamic equilibrium that maintains concentration between reactants and products in which the rate of forward reaction equals the rate of backward reactions at certain times.
For example -
The type of reaction between one or more reactants to give products during which there is simultaneous breaking and forming of bonds of species or compounds.
Chemical reactions are of many types –
2Mg + O2 --> 2 MgO
Chemical kinetics is the branch of chemistry, that mainly deals with the rate of chemical reaction. The rate of chemical reaction indicate the change in the concentration of reactant and product with time. Thus, the kinetics of a chemical reaction interpret the speed and rate of change during chemical process.
The branch of chemistry deals with the non spontaneous occurrence of chemical reactions due to electricity.
In this way, there is interconversion of electrical energy into chemical energy.
For example – In electrolysis, chemical reaction takes place due to electrical energy whereas in a battery or cell the reverse process takes place.
It is the arrangement of electrons on shells of a spherical atomic structure. Also the number of electrons is defined by the atomic number of an element.
For example- lithium with atomic number = 3
Exothermic reaction - The type of reaction which releases or produces an amount of energy in the form of heat or light.
Endothermic reaction – The type of energy which absorbs or requires a certain amount of energy in the form of heat or light.
It is the distribution of electrons within atomic orbitals in order of increasing energy of the levels, followed by some rules.
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s,3p,4s,3d, 4p,5s,4d,5p,6s,4f,5d,6p,7s,5f
It is simple theory and it explains thermodynamic behavior of gases. This theory of gases explains the macroscopic properties of gases like Volume , Pressure and temperature and also transport properties. According to this theory gases are made up of a large number of molecules and they are flying in a random direction with particular speed. By knowing the speed of gases molecules easily we can figure out macroscopic properties.
According to this theory Kinetic energy is directly proportional to temperature.
It is analytical technique and it is used to measure mass to charge ratio of ions and it result as a mass spectrum and this measurement used to calculate exact molecular weight and mass spectrometry also used to identify unknown compounds and also used to determine the structure and chemical properties of molecule.
Mass spectrometry consists of three components such as
1. Ionization source
2. Mass analyser
3. Ion detection system.
It refers to the identity of molecule and relative number of the chemical elements that make any particular molecule.
For example Composition of sulphuric acid is
2- Hydrogen atoms
The chemical compounds can be named with the help of IUPAC rules. The IUPAC rules is a set of certain rules that provides a way to name any organic or inorganic chemical compounds. For example; name of CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 must be butane as there are 4 C atoms so the root word must be but- with -ane as suffix because all the C atoms are bonded single covalent bonds.
The net ionic equation is the representation of chemical equation in the form of ions. It represents the ionic form with the physical state of all the ions. The spectator ions are not part of the net ionic equation as they are placed at either side of the chemical equation. For example:
It is a branch of chemistry that deals with the study of nucleus and nuclear reactions in an atom .Nuclear reactions are different chemical reactions . In chemical reactions atoms combine without undergoing any change in nucleus whereas nuclear reaction is one which proceeds with a change in the composition of the nucleus so it will produce atoms of a new element.
Organic chemistry is the study of the structure , properties , composition , preparation and reactions of carbon containing compounds and along with Carbon it includes Hydrogen , Nitrogen , Oxygen atoms also.
It is defined as the charge of an atom that appears to have on forming ionic bonds with other heteroatoms and also atom having high electronegativity even if it forms covalent bond.
The table of the chemical elements arranged in order of atomic number from lowest atomic number to highest atomic number, electronic configuration and recurring chemical properties usually arranged in rows and columns.
The phenomenon of repetition of similar properties of elements at regular intervals in periodic tables is called periodicity and it is called periodic properties.
Periodic properties includes
1. Atomic radii
3. Electron affinity
5. Oxidation number
6. Electro positivity
It is a type of chemical reaction that involves a transfer of electrons between two chemical species. One species undergoes oxidation while another undergoes reduction. This oxidation and reduction reactions occur simultaneously. The substance which is getting reduced is known as Oxidizing agent and the substance which is getting oxidized is called reducing agent.
States of Matter:
It is defined as one of the way to describe the behavior of atoms and molecules in a substance
There are six states of matter
1. Solid state
2. Liquid state
4. Plasma state
5.Bose Einstein condensate state
6. Fermionic condensate state
Intermolecular forces are the attraction forces or repulsion forces which act between neighboring particles such as in between atoms, molecules or ions.
These are the isomeric molecules which have same molecular formula but only differ in spatial arrangement
Trans -But -2-ene
It is a branch of chemistry that deals with the application of the law of definite proportions and of the conservation of mass and it is the study of quantitative relationship or ratios between two or more substances undergoing physical change or chemical change. Stoicheion means element and metron is a measure and it also deals with the mass or volumes of products and reactants.
Solid is one of the fundamental states of matter and its molecules are closely packed together and this state of matter is having least kinetic energy. Solids are characterized by structural rigidity and for moving solid objects one definitely needs to apply force to the surface.
Liquids are substances which have an indefinite shape, size and definite volume and are incompressible, loosely packed and free flowing state of matter.
Solution is a homogeneous mixture and it consists of two or more components. Size of particles in solution is smaller than 1 nm. All the solutions contain two common components one is solute and other one is solvent.
Solute quantity in solution is very less and solvent quantity in solution is very high compared to solute.
Examples: Sugar in water, salt in water
Thermodynamics is the branch of physical chemistry and it deals with heat, work and temperature and it interrelates this parameter with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state.
1.In the addition reaction between 1-butyne and hydrogen iodide, two different products can be formed. Identify the name of a major product.
Explanation: 1-butyne is a terminal alkyne in which the triple bonded C atoms are placed at one of the terminal of the molecule. The addition of HI follows the Markovnikov addition (electrophilic addition reaction) that leads to more stable product. Two products are 2-iodo-1-butene and 2,2-diiodobutane.
2. When 3-methyl-3-chlorohexane is heated to boiling together with NaOH (aq), 3-methyl-3-hexanol is formed as the main organic product. Which type of mechanism is followed by the reaction?
Explanation: The reaction follows the nucleophilic substitution reaction. The mechanism proves the reaction of 3-methyl-3-chlorohexane with NaOH (aq) to form 3-methyl-3-hexanol as a nucleophilic substitution reaction. Here nucleophile OH- attacks on more stable tertiary carbocation formed during SN1 mechanism.
3. What is the rational name of the major product formed when a solution of 2-methyl-1-butene is added hydrogen iodide, HI?
Explanation: The 2-methyl-1-butene can form primary and secondary carbocation as intermediate. Due to hyper conjugation, secondary carbocation is more stable than primary carbocation. Therefor; secondary carbocation forms as major product and primary carbocation forms as minor product.
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