The concept is based on the presence of and ions in the aqueous solution of the given substance. It states that an acid gives ions in its aqueous solution whereas a base gives ions in its aqueous solution.
This concept is based on the capacity of a substance to give or accept the ions. It is not based on the presence of aqueous solution.
A Bronsted acid can give ion and results in the formation of a conjugate base of it whereas a Bronsted base can accept ion and results in the formation of conjugate acid of it.
The Lewis acid - base concept was based on the transfer of electrons during the chemical reactions. A substance is said to be Lewis acid if the substance can accept the electrons whereas a substance is known as Lewis base if it can donate its lone pairs of electrons or extra electrons.
The dissociation of weak acids shows equilibrium and can be represented with the help of dissociation constant.
The concentration of in a solution can be expressed with the help of pH value which ranges from 0 to 14. The pH value 0 to 7 stands for acidic whereas the pH value 7-14 stands for basic solution. The pH value 7 stands for neutral solution. The mathematical expression for pH is:
Buffer solutions are the solutions which show resistance in change in pH value even after addition of a little amount of acid or base to the solution.
The equation is used to calculate the pH and pKa value of buffer solution. The mathematical expression of equation can be written as:
Question 1: Calculate the pH value of 0.025 M solution of HCl.
Answer: pH = 1.6
Question 2: Which combination can act as a buffer solution?
Strong acid + Strong base
Weak acid + Weak base
Weak acid + Salt of weak acid with strong base
Strong acid + Salt of weak acid with strong base
Solution: A mixture of weak acid with salt of that acid with strong base acts as a buffer solution.
Question 3: Identify the Lewis base in the given substances.
Solution: A Lewis base is the substance that can give its extra pair of electrons or lone pair of electrons. In the given substances, ammonia must be Lewis base as N contains one lone pair of electrons.
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An acid can be defined as the substance that can give H⁺ ions in their aqueous solution whereas a base the substance can give OH⁻ ions in their aqueous solution.
|It can give H⁺ ions.||It can give OH⁻ ions.|
|It has a sour taste.||It has a bitter taste.|
|Example: Citric acid||Example: Sodium hydroxide|
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