Atom is the smallest unit of any substance. It is the building block of all the substances. They are composed of certain subatomic particles; electrons, neutrons and protons. These subatomic particles are arranged in such a way that it makes the atom neutral.
Electrons are negatively charged particles and are arranged in certain energy levels of an atom. The mass of electrons is very less, approximately . The relative charge of an electron is considered as -1.
Protons are positively charged particles and are placed in the nucleus, at the center of an atom. The mass of protons is . The relative charge of a proton is considered as +1. They were discovered by Ernest Rutherford.
Neutrons are neutral particles and are placed in the nucleus, at the center of an atom. The mass of neutrons is and relative charge is 0. They were discovered by James Chadwick.
J.J. Thomson proposed the atomic model as the combination of negatively and positively charged particles.
Ernest Rutherford proposed this model with the existence of a nucleus at the center of an atom.
Niels Bohr provided the Bohr’s atomic model for the explanation of energy levels of electrons with their velocity and radius of shell.
Atoms have a tendency to form chemical bonds with other atoms to get the Noble gas configuration. It provides stability to atoms. Compounds are the chemical species which are formed by chemical bonding of various atoms. Some common examples of compounds are HCl, HI etc.
On the basis of charges, ions can be classified as cation and anion. A cation is formed by the loss of electrons and it induces positive charge on it. An anion is formed by the gain of electrons. The presence of extra electrons causes negative charge on atoms that leads to the formation of anion.
The ions that are composed of more than one different atoms are called polyatomic ions. Some common examples of polyatomic ions are
Question 1: Identify the lightest particles.
Answer- a) electron
Question 2: Which of the given atomic models proposed the existence of the nucleus?
Bohr’s atomic model
Thomson’s atomic model
Answer: b) Rutherford model
Question 3: Identify the correct statement for polyatomic ions.
They are composed of more than 2 atoms
They are composed of more than one types of atoms
Cl is an example of polyatomic ion
They always have positive charge
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