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5.a. Describe and explain the effect of adding concentrated sodium sulfate solution (assume saturated) to a sample of the solution ...

to a sample of the solution taken from a saturated solution of calcium sulfate. b. Explain, with calculations optional, why this will be effective as a qualitative rather than a quantitative test in the Science classroom, for a 20 mL sample. How do you do the calculations for part b?
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7.Yorksinite is a newly discovered gaseous compound. 2.178 mol of Yorksinite effuses from a container in 98.70 s. Under ...

in 98.70 s. Under the same conditions, 1.738 mol of another gas with molar mass 40.10 g mol-1 takes 82.60 s to effuse. What is the molar mass of yorksinite? Report your answer to one decimal place. Do not enter units.
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Basic concepts in Atoms , Compounds and Ions: 



Atom is the smallest unit of any substance. It is the building block of all the substances. They are composed of certain subatomic particles; electrons, neutrons and protons. These subatomic particles are arranged in such a way that it makes the atom neutral. 



Electrons are negatively charged particles and are arranged in certain energy levels of an atom. The mass of electrons is very less, approximately The relative charge of an electron is considered as -1. 



Protons are positively charged particles and are placed in the nucleus, at the center of an atom.   The mass of protons is .  The relative charge of a proton is considered as +1. They were discovered by Ernest Rutherford. 



Neutrons are neutral particles and are placed in the nucleus, at the center of an atom. The mass of neutrons is  and relative charge is 0. They were discovered by James Chadwick. 


Thomson’s atomic theory 

J.J. Thomson proposed the atomic model as the combination of negatively and positively charged particles. 


Rutherford Planetary model 

Ernest Rutherford proposed this model with the existence of a nucleus at the center of an atom.


Bohr’s atomic model  

Niels Bohr provided the Bohr’s atomic model for the explanation of energy levels of electrons with their velocity and radius of shell.   



Atoms have a tendency to form chemical bonds with other atoms to get the Noble gas configuration. It provides stability to atoms. Compounds are the chemical species which are formed by chemical bonding of various atoms.  Some common examples of compounds are HCl, HI etc. 



On the basis of charges, ions can be classified as cation and anion. A cation is formed by the loss of electrons and it induces positive charge on it. An anion is formed by the gain of electrons. The presence of extra electrons causes negative charge on atoms that leads to the formation of anion. 

Polyatomic ions

The ions that are composed of more  than one different atoms are called polyatomic ions. Some common examples of polyatomic ions are 



Sample Atoms , Compounds and Ions Problems: 


Question 1: Identify the lightest particles.  

Answer- a) electron 
Question 2: Which of the given atomic models proposed the existence of the nucleus?  

Bohr’s atomic model 
Rutherford model  
Quantum mechanics 
Thomson’s atomic model 
Answer: b)  Rutherford model 
Question 3: Identify the correct statement for polyatomic ions. 

They are composed of more than 2 atoms 
They are composed of more than one types of atoms
Cl is an example of polyatomic ion
They always have positive charge
Answer: b) 



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What are 5 examples of compounds?


5 examples of compounds are:

  • Water (H2O)
  • Ammonia (NH3)
  • Methane (CH4)
  • Ethanol (C2H5OH)
  • Methanol (CH3OH)

How do atoms molecules and ions differ from each other?

An atom is a neutral species due to equal number of electrons and protons in an atom. On the contrary, an ion is formed by the loss or gain of electrons from a neutral atom. A negative charged ion is called an anion whereas a positive charged ion is called a cation. 

What are atoms, elements and compounds?

An atom is a neutral species due to equal number of electrons and protons in an atom. An element is composed of the same type of atoms. For example, Cu is an element that consists of the same type of Cu atoms.  Two or more atoms combine to form a compound. For example; Water (H2O) is a compound as it consists of two H atoms and one O atom.  

How many atoms are in an ionic compound?

An ionic compound is composed of two types of ions; cation and anion.  Cations are positively charged ions and anions are negatively charged ions. Because of opposite charges, they attract each other to form ionic bonds in ionic compounds. Thus, there can be any number of atoms in an ionic compound. 


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