Buffers, Titrations and Solubility Equilibria Homework Help

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## Buffers, Titrations and Solubility Equilibria:

### Buffer–

It is the aqueous solution of combination of weak acid and its conjugate base or weak base and its conjugate acid which restricts the change in the PH of the reaction.

It can be classified into two parts as acidic or alkaline buffer

### Acidic buffer-

It has acidic pH and is prepared by mixing a weak acid with its salt with a strong base.

For e.g  Acetic acid and sodium acetate has a pH of 4.74.

### Alkaline buffer-

This maintains the basic conditions which has a basic pH and is prepared by mixing a weak base and its salt with strong acid.

For e.g Ammonium hydroxide and ammonium chloride has a pH of 9.25.

## Titrations-

A volumetric technique, of determining the unknown concentration of a solution by the known concentration of a solution in the presence of indicator is called Titration

Titrations can be classified as:

• Acid-base Titrations
• Redox Titrations.
• Precipitation Titrations.
• Complexometric Titrations

### Equivalence point and end point-

The point in the process of titration where the chemical reaction of  a mixture ends is called the equivalence point whereas the point where change of colour is observed is known as end point.

The aim of the titration is to find the equivalence point, which is the point where chemically equivalents of the reactants are combined. It consist of two terms as.

### Analyte and titrant-

Titrant is the known solution added from a burette to a known quantity of the analyte  which is  the unknown solution.

## Solubility equilibria-

It is defined as the maximum amount of the solute that dissolves in 100 ml of the solvent at a given temperature and pressure is called solubility.

The ions in an ionic solid are held together by strong electrostatic forces of attraction. Certain combinations to define solubility are:

• Salts with solubility greater than 0.1 moles/litre is soluble.
• Salts with solubility between 0.01 moles and 0.1 moles/ litre is considered to be slightly soluble.
• And, salts with solubility less than 0.01 moles/ litre is considered to be sparingly soluble.

Ksp is the solubility product of the reaction for given species

The ion product (Q) of a salt is the product of concentrations of the ions in solution raised to the same powers as in the solubility product expression.

Ksp describes equilibrium concentrations, the ion product shows concentrations that are not necessarily equilibrium concentrations.

The certain conditions are:

• Q < Ksp. The solution is unsaturated, and more of the ionic solid, if available, will dissolve.
• Q = Ksp. The solution is saturated and at equilibrium.
• Q > Ksp. The solution is supersaturated, and ionic solid will precipitate.

## Sample Questions & Answers on Buffers, Titrations & Solubility Equilibria:

Q1 Buffer Resist the change in pH of solution by

Mixing with the strong acid of low pH
Mixing with the strong base of high pH
Mixing of weak acid and its salt
None of the above

Ans C)  Mixing of weak acid and its salt

Q2   In the titration where unknown concentration is to be determined is termed as

Titrate
Titrant
Solution
Estimated solute

Ans A) Titrate is also called as analyte

## One-stop-solution for Titration problems to Buffer solutions:

Typically introduced in 10th Grade Chemistry Honors courses or in Grade 11 in the chemistry school curriculum in the United States, the topic of Chemical Solutions and Equilibrium is a deep and complicated one.

For High School students, AP Chemistry courses many times involve Solubility Rules. For success in the AP course, one is required to memorize the general solubility rules & share predictions about precipitate formation during a double replacement reaction.

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