The arrangement of electrons in certain energy levels of an atom is called electronic configuration. It represents the energy levels and number of electrons in each orbital.
Octet configuration is the most stable Noble gas configuration with 8 electrons in the valence shell of an atom.
All atoms tend to get the octet configuration to get stability. Therefore, they involve in bonding with same or other atoms with sharing or transfer of their valence electrons.
Ionic bond is an electrostatic force of attraction between cation and anion due to their opposite charges. Here cation is a positively charged particle whereas an anion is a negatively charged particle.
Covalent bonds are types of chemical bonds which are formed by equal sharing of valence electrons between two bonded atoms. Non-metals usually form covalent bonds as they tend to share electrons to get octet configuration.
Coordinate bond is a type of covalent bond that is formed by unequal sharing of electrons between bonded or non-bonded atoms/ molecules. Here one donor atom/molecule gives its extra pair of electrons to the acceptor molecule/atom.
On the basis of the number of electrons shared between two bonded atoms, covalent bond can be classified as single, double and triple covalent bond. On the contrary, on the basis of strength and type of orbital involved, covalent bond can be two types; sigma and pi-covalent bond.
The electron-dot structure or Lewis structure is the structure in which the valence electrons are shown as cross or dots. All the bonded atoms must have octet configuration in an electron dot structure.
Hybridization can be defined as the mixing of atomic orbitals to form hybrid orbital between bonded atoms in a molecule. The concept of hybridization is provided by Valence Bond Theory.
If the chemical and physical properties of a molecule can not be explained by one structure and there is possibility for delocalisation of lone pairs or pi electrons , a molecule can show more than one type of structure. This phenomenon is called resonance and the structures are called resonance structures.
MOT proposed the formation of molecular orbitals by the combination of atomic orbitals in a molecule. It provided a complete explanation of magnetic and spectral properties of molecules on the basis of presence of electrons and their spin in the molecular orbitals.
VSEPR stands for Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory. It states that if there is a lone pair on the central atom of the molecule, the molecular geometry must be different from electronic geometry. This is because of repulsion between lone pair and bond pairs of bonded atoms.
Question 1: Which type of chemical bond is found in ammonium hydroxide molecules?
Ionic, covalent and coordinate bond
Answer- c) Ionic, covalent and coordinate bond
Question 2: The theory which proposed the spectral properties of molecules is ______.
Answer: b) MOT
Question 3: According to VSEPR, the molecular geometry of ClF₃ must be________.
Answer: a) T-shape
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