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Chemical Equilibrium

Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic state at which the rate of forward reaction is equals to  rate of backward reaction.At this point  the number of reactant molecules converting  into products  and converting product  molecules into reactants are the same.

There are two types of chemical equilibrium:

Homogeneous equilibrium:

The reactants and the products of chemical equilibrium are all in the same phase. Homogeneous equilibrium is further divided into two types  . In the first type the reactions in which the number of molecules  of a product is equal to the number of molecules of reactants.  Reactions in which the number of molecules of the product  is not equal to the total number of reactant molecules.

Heterogeneous  equilibrium:

In this type reactants and products  of chemical  equilibrium   are present in different phases

There are several factors like temperature, pressure and concentration of the system which affect equilibrium. Some important factors affecting chemical equilibrium are discussed below:

  • Change in concentration 
  • Change in pressure 
  • Change in Temperature 
  • Effect of catalyst 
  • Effect of addition of inert gas

Chemical Equilibrium Questions


Question 1: Chemical equilibrium at which rate of forward reaction ___________ to rate of backward reaction

(a) Not equal

(b) Equals to

(c) Not similar

(d) No relation

Solution : Chemical equilibrium at which rate of forward reaction is equals to the rate of backward reaction.

Answer : (b(

Question 2: In chemical reaction represented as Backward reaction is the reaction in ________ converts to __________.

(a) Reactants to products

(b) Products to Reactants

(c) Substrates to intermediates

(d) All the above

Solution : In chemical reaction  the backward reaction in which products get converted into reactants.

Answer : (a)


Question 3: Chemical equilibrium is ________ state

(a) Dynamic state

(b) Static state

(c) Both dynamic and static state

(d) All the above

Solution : Chemical equilibrium is dynamic state

 Answer : (a)


Frequently Asked Questions:


What happens at chemical equilibrium?

A chemical equilibrium can be defined as the stage of a reversible chemical reaction when the rate of forward and backward reactions are equal to each other.


What is chemical equilibrium and its types?

Chemical equilibrium is a stage of a reversible chemical reaction when the concentrations of reactant and product do not change with time. It can be classified as two types:


  • Homogeneous equilibrium- All reactant and product molecules are in the same physical state.
  • Heterogeneous equilibrium- Reactant and product molecules must be in different phases.

What is chemical equilibrium in thermodynamics?

The thermodynamic of chemical equilibrium can be explained with the help of equilibrium constant and ΔG°as given below:

ΔG = ΔG° + 2.303 RTlog Q 


How chemical equilibrium is dynamic

At chemical equilibrium, the rate of forward and backward reaction. Therefore the concentration of reactant and product remain same with time. Therefore at equilibrium, the reactions seem to stop but both forward and backward reactions run in parallel so the concentration remains constant. Since reactions continuously run with constant concentration it is called dynamic equilibrium.  


How to calculate chemical equilibrium?

The chemical equilibrium constant is the best expression to check the progress of chemical equilibrium. 

How to solve chemical equilibrium problems?

The chemical equilibrium problems can be solved with the help of equilibrium constant value and ICE table ( initial, change and equilibrium concentration values).



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