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Basic concepts in Electronic Structure Of Atom:

 

Atomic structure- 

Atom is the smallest unit of any substance. It is composed of certain subatomic particles; electrons, neutrons and protons. The arrangement of these subatomic particles in an atom is called the electronic structure of an atom.

 
Electronic orbital- 

The area around the nucleus with the highest probability of finding an electron is known as the electronic orbital. The Atomic physics and Quantum mechanics support the presence of electronic orbitals.  

 
Electronic configuration- 

This is the distribution of electrons in various electronic orbitals around the nucleus. Electrons always occupy lower energy levels then move to higher energy levels. 

 
Rules for electronic configuration-  

The distribution of electrons in various orbitals follow certain rules as mentioned below:

  • Hund’s rule: Every electron in a subshell will be single until the empty orbitals are available in the same subshell.
  • Aufbau principle: Electrons always occupy the lower energy level and then move to higher energy levels.
  • Pauli’s exclusion principle: No two electrons in an atom can have the same quantum numbers.

 

Quantum number- 

Four quantum numbers are used to explain the position and energy of electrons in an atom. 

  • Principle quantum number: Represents as “n” and used to calculate the energy and shell number of electrons.  
  • Azimuthal quantum number: Denoted by and is used to calculate the position of an electron in a certain subshell.
  • Magnetic quantum number: Denoted by “m” and represents the magnetic moment of an electron.
  • Spin quantum number: Related to the spin of an electron and denoted by ‘s’. The value of ‘s’ is always +½ or -½ .

 

Electron orbital energy- 

Bohr’s atomic model explained the total energy of electrons as the sum of their potential energy and kinetic energy. The mathematical expression of orbital energy is:

 

Rydberg equation-  

Rydberg equation is used to calculate the wavelength and energy of electrons in transition from initial energy level to final energy level. The mathematical expression is:  

Here: 


R = Rydberg constant = 1.097 x 10⁷ m⁻¹
nₘ = Initial energy level 
nₙ= Final energy level 

 

Radius of electronic orbital- 

Radius of atomic orbitals can be calculated with the help of value of “n” quantum number.  

Here; r = radius, n = principle quantum number, Z = atomic number

 

Sample Questions and Answers on Electronic Structure of Atoms:  

 

Question 1: Identify the correct energy order for the electronic structure of an atom. 

  • 2s < 2p< 3s< 3p< 3d< 3f 
  • 1s< 2s< 2p< 3p 
  • 1s< 2s< 3s< 3p<3d 
  • 1s<2s<2p<3s<3p<4s<3d

Answer: d) 

 

Question 2: Calculate the radius of the second atomic orbital of He atom.

Solution: 

r = radius
n = principle quantum number  2 
Z = atomic number of He = 2
Substitute the values to calculate radius: 


r =1.058 ×10⁻¹º m

 

Question 3: Calculate the wavelength in nanometers, if the electron in the hydrogen atom moves from n=2 to n=3.

Solution:

 

Get reliable answers for electronic structures, distribution and configuration problems:

 

Atoms are the basic units of matter and the smallest units in the universe that cannot be divided. Here at TutorEye, we’ll help you decode even subatomic particles like nucleons and quarks. Let’s find out all about the building blocks that are in existence since the Big Bang.

 

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Frequently Asked Questions

 

 

What is the electronic structure of an atom? 


The electronic structure of an atom represents the sub-atomic particles with their proper position in an atom that makes the atom neutral.  


   
What is meant by electronic structure?


The electronic structure of an atom explains the position of sub-atomic particles of an atom; electrons, protons and neutrons. The negatively charged electrons are always placed in certain energy levels around the nucleus. Here the nucleus is the center part of an atom that consists of protons and neutrons.  

 

How do you draw the electronic structure of an atom?

 

To draw the electronic structure of an atom, we need an exact number of electrons, protons and neutrons in an atom. Here electrons must be placed in different electronic shells according to their energy whereas neutrons and protons must be placed in the nucleus.  


 
What is the modern description of the electronic structure of an atom?

 

In the modern description of the electronic structure of an atom, the energy levels of electrons are further classified as subshell, orbitals etc.  The modern description represents the exact number of electrons placed in each energy level.

 

 

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