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Atom is the smallest unit of any substance. It is composed of certain subatomic particles; electrons, neutrons and protons. The arrangement of these subatomic particles in an atom is called the electronic structure of an atom.

Electronic orbital-

The area around the nucleus with the highest probability of finding an electron is known as the electronic orbital. The Atomic physics and Quantum mechanics support the presence of electronic orbitals.

Electronic configuration-

This is the distribution of electrons in various electronic orbitals around the nucleus. Electrons always occupy lower energy levels then move to higher energy levels.

Rules for electronic configuration-

**The distribution of electrons in various orbitals follow certain rules as mentioned below:**

- Hund’s rule: Every electron in a subshell will be single until the empty orbitals are available in the same subshell.
- Aufbau principle: Electrons always occupy the lower energy level and then move to higher energy levels.
- Pauli’s exclusion principle: No two electrons in an atom can have the same quantum numbers.

** **

**Four quantum numbers are used to explain the position and energy of electrons in an atom. **

- Principle quantum number: Represents as “n” and used to calculate the energy and shell number of electrons.
- Azimuthal quantum number: Denoted by and is used to calculate the position of an electron in a certain subshell.
- Magnetic quantum number: Denoted by “m” and represents the magnetic moment of an electron.
- Spin quantum number: Related to the spin of an electron and denoted by ‘s’. The value of ‘s’ is always +½ or -½ .

Bohr’s atomic model explained the total energy of electrons as the sum of their potential energy and kinetic energy. The mathematical expression of orbital energy is:

Rydberg equation is used to calculate the wavelength and energy of electrons in transition from initial energy level to final energy level. The mathematical expression is:

**Here: **

R = Rydberg constant = 1.097 x 10⁷ m⁻¹

nₘ = Initial energy level

nₙ= Final energy level

Radius of atomic orbitals can be calculated with the help of value of “n” quantum number.

Here; r = radius, n = principle quantum number, Z = atomic number

**Question 1: Identify the correct energy order for the electronic structure of an atom. **

- 2s < 2p< 3s< 3p< 3d< 3f
- 1s< 2s< 2p< 3p
- 1s< 2s< 3s< 3p<3d
- 1s<2s<2p<3s<3p<4s<3d

**Answer: d) **

**Question 2: Calculate the radius of the second atomic orbital of He atom.**

**Solution: **

r = radius

n = principle quantum number 2

Z = atomic number of He = 2

Substitute the values to calculate radius:

r =1.058 ×10⁻¹º m

**Question 3: Calculate the wavelength in nanometers, if the electron in the hydrogen atom moves from n=2 to n=3.**

**Solution: **

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