“If we assume that the last breath of, say, Julius Caesar has by now become thoroughly scattered through the atmosphere, then the chances are that each of us inhales one molecule of it with every breath we take.”
― James Jeans, An Introduction To The Kinetic Theory Of Gases
This law defines the behaviour of gases and it consist of various assumptions are-
It is defined for the energy produced from the motion of the particles which is proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas.
It depends on quantity like Temperature , mass of a gas molecule . average velocity and other certain conditions.
P – pressure as force exerted on the walls of the container during collision
N – No. of the particles
When the number of particles increases, The frequency of collisions with the walls also increases.
Hence, pressure increases with increase in gas molecules.
The kinetic molecular theory of gas followed by the laws are defined for the ideal gas , whose molecules have no interionic interactions.
PV=nRT , R is a gas constant
CHARLES LAW (V,T)
Keeping constant the pressure of a gas , the volume becomes proportional to the temperature of the gas. This is based on the fact that as mass of the particles is constant , this thereby increases and balances the pressure applied by the gas particles on the surface of the wall . Hence , the volume of gas becomes larger as temperature increases.
Keeping temperature constant, The pressure applied by the gas molecules is inversely proportional to the volume.
I based on the constant Temperature conditions , which results in the same kinetic energy. Hence during collisions of high number , pressure of the gas also increases , but the volume decreases because now frequency of collision is high.
Keeping temperature and pressure, The volume of the gas is proportional to the number of gas molecules.
This law states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases must be the sum of partial pressure of each gas present in the mixture. These gases must be non-reactive with each other.
By joseph Louis GAY-LUSSAC
It is based on the assumption that keeping constant the volume and temperature of the gas.
The pressure applied is proportional to the temperature.
The 0K or -273.15°C is called absolute zero temperature. It can be represented in the V/T curve after extra plotting of the curve to zero. At this temperature, all molecular motions would cease.
The behaviour of real gases behaves differently as of ideal gases and deviates the laws because-
Real gas molecules both attract and repel due to interionic force of interaction.
True gas molecules have an infinite volume
But at high temperature and low pressure all the real gases behave ideally.
Q 1. In a closed vessel , If total pressure is 6Atm by the mixtures of gases consisting of Hydrogen , oxygen and nitrogen with the partial pressure of 3atm , 2.5 . Then what will be the partial pressure exerted by nitrogen gas ?
Total pressure = 6 atm
Applying DALTON LAW
Total pressure = PH2 + PO2 + PN2
6= 3+ 2.5 + PN2
0.5 atm = PN2
Answer: PN2 = 0.5 atm
Q 2. Which law obeys only at constant volume conditions?
Gay lussac law
Dalton theory of partial pressure
Ans: Boyle law
Q3 Which of the conditions are necessarily for Real gas to behave ideally?
Constant Temperature and pressure
High pressure and low temperature
Low pressure and high temperature
Low pressure and low temperature
Ans: Low pressure and high temperature
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