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Periodic Tables and Its Properties for High School & College students

Find solutions for all your chemical periodicity problems by availing homework assistance from experienced professionals in the discipline.

Basic concepts in Periodic table and periodic properties:

 

 

 

Distribution of elements- 

Elements are the chemical substances composed of the same type of atoms. Today we have 118 known elements. All elements can be differentiated on the basis of their chemical and physical properties. The chemical properties depend on the valence shell electronic configuration whereas physical properties depend on the atomic size mainly.


First periodic table-  

Dmitrii Mendeleev proposed the first periodic table in 1880 with all known elements. He put all elements, known that time in a certain logical order and also left room for unknown elements. He followed the known atomic weight of elements.  

 

 

 

 

Development in Periodic table- 

After the discovery of radioactivity and Noble gases, the Long Form of Periodic Table came in picture. It consists of 18th vertical columns and 7 horizontal periods with two series of 14 elements at the bottom of the main table. 


Classification of elements- 

On the basis of presence of valence electrons in an element, elements can be classified as s, p , d and f-block elements.


s- block element- 

The s-block elements are placed in the group-1 and 2. The valence shell electrons in these elements are placed in s-orbital. They are the most active metal elements. They form ionic compounds with nonmetals and have metallic bonds between metal ions.  


p-block elements- 

The p-block elements are placed from group-13 to group-18 in the long form of the periodic table. Most of the p-block elements are non-metallic elements with few metalloids and heavy metals.


d-block elements- 

The d-block elements are placed from group-3 to group-12 in the periodic table. Due to variable oxidation states and presence of incomplete d-orbitals, they are also called transition elements. 


f-block elements- 

The f-block elements are placed at the bottom of the main table in the form of two series of 14 elements. They are heavy metals with radioactive nature.  


Periodic properties- 

The periodic properties like atomic size, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity etc. show a periodic trend down in the group and across the period.  


Atomic size and Ionization energy- 

The energy required to remove an electron from the valence shell of the neutral gaseous atom is called ionization energy. As the atomic size increases down in the group ( due to increase in the number of valence shells), the ionization energy decreases as the nuclear attraction decreases. On the contrary, across the period, the ionization energy increases due to decrease in atomic size and stronger nuclear attractions. 


 
Electron affinity and electronegativity- 

The energy released due to addition of electrons in the valence shell of a gaseous neutral atom is called electron affinity. Electronegativity is the tendency of a bonded atom to attract the bonding electrons. The electronegativity of elements increases across the period therefore halogens are considered as the most electronegative elements.

 

 

Sample Periodic table and periodic properties Problems:   

 

 

Question1:  Which type of compound is formed by the combination of elements from group-2 and group-16?

 

a) Metallic compound
b) Covalent compound 
c) Coordinate compound 
d) Ionic compound 
 
Answer: d) 
 
Since group-2 elements are metallic elements and group-16 are non-metallic elements therefore the combination must form ionic compounds only.  

 


Question2: Mark the correct order of electron affinity of halogens.  

 

a) F < Cl < Br > I
b) F < Cl > Br > I 
c) F > Cl > Br > I  
d) F = Cl  > Br < I  
 
Answer: b)  
 
The electron affinity of halogens decreases down in the group as atomic size increases. Exceptionally the electron affinity of Cl is higher than F due to small size and high electronegativity of F.   

 


Question3: Why is Zn not considered as transition metal but it is a d-block element?  

 

a) Zn does not have d-electrons 
b) Zn does not show variable oxidation states 
c) Zn does not have any s-electron  
d) Zn is volatile in nature 
 
 
Answer: b)  
 
Although Zn is a 3d-series element and is placed in group-12 yet, it is not a transition element due to complete filled d-orbitals. Therefore it cannot show variable oxidation state and does not form a transition element. 

 

 

Best Assignment Help for Periodic Properties:

 

 

A periodic table is an arrangement of elements with similar properties and a result of observations from experiments. To achieve a stable octet formation, electrons tend to lose or gain valence. And we’re here to assist  you with the table of masses and ionization of energy.

 

Analyze the electron configurations of the elements by examining the periodic table and get help with assignment related queries. Resolve your doubts instantly by taking help from experts to understand ionization trends on the periodic table.

 

Get simple solutions and guidance on how a periodic table is similar to a map you used on your last road trip. With the help of assignment provided you can observe how atoms with the largest atomic radii are located at the bottom of groups and classified in Group 1.

 

Chemical periodicity may not be an easy topic to learn and this where our assignment solvers take full responsibility to provide step-by-step explanations to make it easy.

 

We’ll help you cover complex questions on electron affinity, electronegativity, shielding effect, valence electrons and atomic mass.

 

Many high schoolers find that our explanations help them to recognize that how on moving from left to right on a periodic table there is a :

 

  • Increase in electronegativity 
  • Increase in ionization energy 
  • Decrease in atomic radius 

 

Generally an Increase in electron affinity  (except in noble gas electron affinity is near zero)

 

Our solvers assist in demonstrating the rules with the help of stepwise explanations and examples. This works best for students whose learning style is “R” meaning reading & writing as per the VARK learning standards. Our tutors provide step by step guidance on the homework questions and reading the solutions and practicing them on your own, will help you understand the concepts better and improve your grades in exams. 

 

Moreover, College students take external help from us to understand by moving top to bottom there is a: 

 

  • Decrease in electronegativity
  • Decrease in ionization energy
  • Increase in atomic radius

 

Generally a decrease in electron affinity moving down a group

 

Take help from experts to identify sodium, silver, copper, gold, carbon, potassium, hydrogen, neon on periodic table. 


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How to take assignment help on the periodic table of elements from experienced professionals?

 

 

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