Elements are the chemical substances composed of the same type of atoms. Today we have 118 known elements. All elements can be differentiated on the basis of their chemical and physical properties. The chemical properties depend on the valence shell electronic configuration whereas physical properties depend on the atomic size mainly.
Dmitrii Mendeleev proposed the first periodic table in 1880 with all known elements. He put all elements, known that time in a certain logical order and also left room for unknown elements. He followed the known atomic weight of elements.
After the discovery of radioactivity and Noble gases, the Long Form of Periodic Table came in picture. It consists of 18th vertical columns and 7 horizontal periods with two series of 14 elements at the bottom of the main table.
On the basis of presence of valence electrons in an element, elements can be classified as s, p , d and f-block elements.
The s-block elements are placed in the group-1 and 2. The valence shell electrons in these elements are placed in s-orbital. They are the most active metal elements. They form ionic compounds with nonmetals and have metallic bonds between metal ions.
The p-block elements are placed from group-13 to group-18 in the long form of the periodic table. Most of the p-block elements are non-metallic elements with few metalloids and heavy metals.
The d-block elements are placed from group-3 to group-12 in the periodic table. Due to variable oxidation states and presence of incomplete d-orbitals, they are also called transition elements.
The f-block elements are placed at the bottom of the main table in the form of two series of 14 elements. They are heavy metals with radioactive nature.
The periodic properties like atomic size, ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity etc. show a periodic trend down in the group and across the period.
The energy required to remove an electron from the valence shell of the neutral gaseous atom is called ionization energy. As the atomic size increases down in the group ( due to increase in the number of valence shells), the ionization energy decreases as the nuclear attraction decreases. On the contrary, across the period, the ionization energy increases due to decrease in atomic size and stronger nuclear attractions.
The energy released due to addition of electrons in the valence shell of a gaseous neutral atom is called electron affinity. Electronegativity is the tendency of a bonded atom to attract the bonding electrons. The electronegativity of elements increases across the period therefore halogens are considered as the most electronegative elements.
Question1: Which type of compound is formed by the combination of elements from group-2 and group-16?
a) Metallic compound
b) Covalent compound
c) Coordinate compound
d) Ionic compound
Since group-2 elements are metallic elements and group-16 are non-metallic elements therefore the combination must form ionic compounds only.
Question2: Mark the correct order of electron affinity of halogens.
a) F < Cl < Br > I
b) F < Cl > Br > I
c) F > Cl > Br > I
d) F = Cl > Br < I
The electron affinity of halogens decreases down in the group as atomic size increases. Exceptionally the electron affinity of Cl is higher than F due to small size and high electronegativity of F.
Question3: Why is Zn not considered as transition metal but it is a d-block element?
a) Zn does not have d-electrons
b) Zn does not show variable oxidation states
c) Zn does not have any s-electron
d) Zn is volatile in nature
Although Zn is a 3d-series element and is placed in group-12 yet, it is not a transition element due to complete filled d-orbitals. Therefore it cannot show variable oxidation state and does not form a transition element.
A periodic table is an arrangement of elements with similar properties and a result of observations from experiments. To achieve a stable octet formation, electrons tend to lose or gain valence. And we’re here to assist you with the table of masses and ionization of energy.
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Generally an Increase in electron affinity (except in noble gas electron affinity is near zero)
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Generally a decrease in electron affinity moving down a group
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The periodic properties are atomic size, ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic volume, melting and boiling points .The properties of elements change as we move from left to right in the period and from top to bottom in the group.
The periodic properties can be defined as physical and chemical properties of the elements. They change as the atomic masses of elements change.
The periodic trends are the properties which exhibit a regular change across the period or down in the group. Some common examples of periodic trends are listed below
The properties of elements depend on whether they are metals and non- metals as well.
The periodic table contains a total 17 groups from Group-1 to Group -18. All groups are vertical columns of known elements that show a periodic trend of various properties of elements like electronegativity, ionization potentials, atomic radii etc.