The three states of matter; solid, liquid, and gases exhibit different nature of particles. The thermal energy and intermolecular force of attraction between particles determine the physical states of matter.
Here, Thermal energy is the energy between constituent particles of matter in a solid is known as Thermal Energy or Kinetic Energy. It determines the mobility of the molecules and its magnitude increases with an increase in temperature. And hence more the thermal energy, the faster will be the movement of molecules.
The forces between constituent particles of matter are known as Intermolecular Forces. In the solid state, the constituent particles are held such that they can’t move from their position.
Dipole-Dipole forces, London Dispersion forces, and Hydrogen bonding are collectively called Van der Waals Forces.
A solid is a substance that has a closed tight crystalline configuration with a rigid, fixed shape, and size.
Also, on the basis of type of arrangement, solids are divided into–
The type of arrangement of the constituent particle which is irregular and not fixed is known as Amorphous Solids. Amorphous solids have a tendency to flow slowly, are also known as Pseudo Solids.
Examples: Glass, Gels, Polymers, etc.
Whereas, the constituent particles that are arranged in a regular way are called crystalline solids. It is also known as True Solids.
Example: Copper, Iron, Sulphur, Phosphorus, etc.
In liquids, the intermolecular forces of attraction are much larger than in gases but smaller than solids. Some key properties of liquids are:
Unlike gases, liquids have a definite volume but no definite shape.
Units of surface tension – N/m or dynes/cm
An important rule to be followed-
It shows the relation between the molar heat of vaporization of a liquid (Joules) and the boiling point of the liquid. The ratio of both is approximately equal to 88.
ΔHv / Tb.p. = 88 JK–1 mol–1
Q1. Which of the following is a type of amorphous solid?
a) Gel solid
b) Copper sulfate crystal
d) Both a and c
Answer – D. Both a and c
Q2. Calculate the surface tension? If 40 Nm of work is done by the liquid on 20 m x 30 m of the liquid surface.
Answer- Given, work done= 40Nm
With area of surface = 20x30 = 600m2
0.066N/m is the applied surface tension
Q3. The magnitude of thermal energy and intermolecular force of attraction is changing with temperature as-
a) Both increases with temperature
b) One increases but the other decreases and then both increasing after a certain time
c) One increases but the other decreasing with temperature
d) Both decreases with temperature
Answer – C. One increases but the other decreases with temperature.
They have an inverse relation with each other that’s why they follow this trend
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Let’s get ready to explore why the boiling point of a substance is always higher than the melting point and much more.
Solid has definite shape and definite volume. One of the most common solid is ice.
Liquid has definite volume but indefinite shape, most common liquid is water.
|Solid||They have definite shape.||They are composed of certain particles with least intermolecular distance.|
|Liquid||They acquire the shape of a container.||They are composed of certain particles with intermediate intermolecular distance.|
|Gases||They can diffuse easily.||They are composed of certain particles with the largest intermolecular distance.|
There can be different results when we mix a solid and a liquid-
1. The solid dissolves into liquid and makes a solution. For example- salt in water.
2. The solid is broken into tiny particles and mixing it with liquid forms a gel like a jelly or a sol like milk.
3. The solid is present in small particles and mixing it with liquid forms a suspension like muddy water.
4. The solid is present in large pieces which don’t dissolve into a liquid. For example glass pieces in water.
All the solids can turn into liquids, when they reach their respective melting points.
For example, Ice melts into water.