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What is Solutions?

 

It is the homogeneous mixture of two or more chemical substances.


Characteristics of solution-

 

  • It is a homogeneous solution, yet it retains the properties.

 

  • It consist of solute and solvent

 

  • The component which is in more quantity is solvent, providing the dissolving medium whereas the component which is present in smaller quantity is solute.

 

 

Following terms in solutions-

 

Solubility:

It is defined as the amount of solute required to dissolve in 100g of solvent at given temperature.

Solubility= Amount of solute dissolved/Amount of solvent ×100

 

Miscible liquids:

Those composition mixture of liquids which  dissolve one another to form a homogeneous mixture.

For example – alcohol in water

 

Immiscible liquids:

The Composition mixture of liquids which do not dissolve, instead forming a separated layer.

For example - Toluene in water

 

Methods of expressing concentration:

 

Molarity:

It is defined as no. of moles of solute dissolving in per litre of solution.

molarity= moles of solute/Volume of solution (litre)

It is denoted as “M” or Mol/litre 

 

Molality:

It is defined as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1kg of solvent.

Molality= moles of solute/mass of solvent (kg)   

It is expressed in “m” or mol/kg

 

Normality:

It is defined as the number of grams equivalent of solute dissolved in per litre solution.

Normality= mass of solute per litre solution/equivalent mass of solution

 

Parts per million:

Trace amounts of solute concentration  are expressed as parts per million. We can also define as no. of parts by mass of solute per million parts by mass of the solution.

Parts per million mass of solute/mass of solution *10^6

 

Raoult law:

It is expressed for non volatile solutions

According to Raoult's Law, the vapour pressure of a solution containing a non-volatile solute is directly proportional to the mole fraction of the solvent ( XA).

The proportionality constant as vapour pressure of the pure solvent, 

              i.e., P× XA or P = P° XA.

Also,  A solution which obeys Raoult’s Law at all concentrations and temperatures is known as an ideal solution.

  • The solution shows positive deviation from Raoult’s Law if its vapour pressure is higher than that predicted by Raoult’s Law.
  • The solution shows negative deviation if its vapour pressure is lower than that predicted by Raoult’s Law.

 

Characteristics of ideal solution:

  • ∆sol V = 0, i.e., there is no change in volume in an ideal solution 
  • ∆sol H= 0; i.e., heat is neither evolved nor absorbed during the formation of an ideal solution.

 

Henry Law-

This law expressed the effect of pressure on the solubility of a gas in a liquid 

It states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid at a given temperature is directly proportional to the partial pressure.

P = KHX 

where P is the partial pressure of the gas; and X is the mole fraction of the gas in the solution and KH is Henry’s Law constant.

 

Solutions Sample Questions:

 

Question 1: What is the molarity of the solution if 20g of NaCl is dissolved in 120ml of solution.

Explanation: Given,

Amount of NaCl = 20g

Molar mass of NaCl= 58.5g/mol 

Volume of solution = 120ml = 0.12litres

Using molarity formula: moles of solute/volume of solution ( litres )= (20/58.5)0.12

0.341/0.12 =2.849M

Molarity of solution is found to be 2.849M


Question 2: Out of the following which one is independent of temperature

(a) Molarity 

(b) Molality

(c) Formality

(d) Parts per million 

Answer: (b)

Explanation: The given term is defined for moles per mass of solvent


 Question 3: Which one is not equal to zero for ideal solution

(a) ∆Hmix

(b) ∆Smix

(c) ∆Vmix

(d) None of these

Answer: (b)

 

Frequently Asked Questions

 

Is water considered a solution?

Water is not a solution but a solvent as it is not a mixture but a pure substance. 


What is the best definition of a solution?

A solution is the homogenous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent, which can’t be separated by filtration. For example- Salt in water.


What are different types of solutions?

Depending on different types of solute and solvents there can be the following types of solutions- 1. When the solute is gas and the solvent is liquid, the solution is called foam. For example whipped cream. When both solute and solvent are liquids, the solution is called emulsions. For example mayonnaise. When solute is liquid and solvent is solid, solution is called gel. For example; Gelatin.

 

 

 

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