It is the homogeneous mixture of two or more chemical substances.
Characteristics of solution-
It is defined as the amount of solute required to dissolve in 100g of solvent at given temperature.
Solubility= Amount of solute dissolved/Amount of solvent ×100
Those composition mixture of liquids which dissolve one another to form a homogeneous mixture.
For example – alcohol in water
The Composition mixture of liquids which do not dissolve, instead forming a separated layer.
For example - Toluene in water
It is defined as no. of moles of solute dissolving in per litre of solution.
molarity= moles of solute/Volume of solution (litre)
It is denoted as “M” or Mol/litre
It is defined as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1kg of solvent.
Molality= moles of solute/mass of solvent (kg)
It is expressed in “m” or mol/kg
It is defined as the number of grams equivalent of solute dissolved in per litre solution.
Normality= mass of solute per litre solution/equivalent mass of solution
Trace amounts of solute concentration are expressed as parts per million. We can also define as no. of parts by mass of solute per million parts by mass of the solution.
Parts per million mass of solute/mass of solution *10^6
It is expressed for non volatile solutions
According to Raoult's Law, the vapour pressure of a solution containing a non-volatile solute is directly proportional to the mole fraction of the solvent ( XA).
The proportionality constant as vapour pressure of the pure solvent,
i.e., P× XA or P = P° XA.
Also, A solution which obeys Raoult’s Law at all concentrations and temperatures is known as an ideal solution.
This law expressed the effect of pressure on the solubility of a gas in a liquid
It states that the solubility of a gas in a liquid at a given temperature is directly proportional to the partial pressure.
P = KHX
where P is the partial pressure of the gas; and X is the mole fraction of the gas in the solution and KH is Henry’s Law constant.
Question 1: What is the molarity of the solution if 20g of NaCl is dissolved in 120ml of solution.
Amount of NaCl = 20g
Molar mass of NaCl= 58.5g/mol
Volume of solution = 120ml = 0.12litres
Using molarity formula: moles of solute/volume of solution ( litres )= (20/58.5)0.12
Molarity of solution is found to be 2.849M
Question 2: Out of the following which one is independent of temperature
(d) Parts per million
Explanation: The given term is defined for moles per mass of solvent
Question 3: Which one is not equal to zero for ideal solution
(d) None of these
Water is not a solution but a solvent as it is not a mixture but a pure substance.
A solution is the homogenous mixture of a solute dissolved in a solvent, which can’t be separated by filtration. For example- Salt in water.
Depending on different types of solute and solvents there can be the following types of solutions- 1. When the solute is gas and the solvent is liquid, the solution is called foam. For example whipped cream. When both solute and solvent are liquids, the solution is called emulsions. For example mayonnaise. When solute is liquid and solvent is solid, solution is called gel. For example; Gelatin.