Homework Help - States of matter & Intermolecular Forces
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Basic concepts in States of Matter and Intermolecular Forces:

 

State of matter

A matter can be defined as the substance that occupies mass and volume. On the basis of arrangement of constituent particles, there are various states of matter.

 

Solid state

A solid state consists of particles with strong intermolecular force of attraction that leads to least intermolecular space between particles.

 

Gaseous state

This state of matter has the. weakest intermolecular forces between constituent particles. This is due to high kinetic energy of particles.

 

Liquid state

This is an intermediate state of matter with some unique characteristics like viscosity, surface tension, fluid nature etc.

 

Intermolecular forces

The interaction between molecules due to their structure is called intermolecular forces. There are various types of intermolecular forces such as dipole-dipole, ion-dipole, hydrogen bonding, Van Der Waal forces. 

 

Dipole-Dipole interaction

This is the intermolecular force of attraction between two dipoles. Here dipoles have partial charges therefore they attract each other with dipole-dipole interactions. The liquefaction of HCl molecules is the best example of it.

 

Dipole-ion interaction

The attraction force between dipole and ion is called dipole-ion force. 

 

Hydrogen bond 

The attraction force between two electronegative atoms like N,O and F in which the H atom acts as a bridge is called a hydrogen bond.

 

Van Der Waal interactions

The attraction force between two non-bonded atoms or molecules is called Van Der Waal interaction. 

 

Effects of intermolecular forces

The presence of intermolecular forces affects the melting and boiling point of substances. It also affects the solubility of substances in a given solvent. Vapour pressure and boiling point depend on the strength of intermolecular force of attractions.

 

Sample Questions & Answers on States of Matter and Intermolecular forces:

 

Q.1 Sodium chloride is soluble in water. What type of intermolecular force exists between molecules in the solution?

Hydrogen bond 
Ion-dipole force 
Dipole-dipole force
Ionic force

Answer: b)

 

Q.2 Which molecule does not show hydrogen bonding between molecules?

Ammonia 
Hydrogen fluoride 
Water 
Hydrogen chloride 

Answer: d) 

 

Q.3 Why is the boiling point of water higher than hydrogen sulfide? 

Answer: Water molecule H₂O consists of H and O atoms that can form hydrogen bonds therefore water molecules are bonded with strong hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) molecules cannot form hydrogen bonds because S is less electronegative and cannot form hydrogen bonds with H atoms. Because of the absence of hydrogen bonds between hydrogen sulfide (H₂S)  molecules, it has a lesser boiling point compared to water.

 

 

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College to School level Chemistry help with states of matter, intermolecular forces and definitions:

 

Chemistry should be referred to as astronomy of the molecular world. A casual glance at substances around us may lead us to wonder what holds them together and if we look carefully we can discover laws of arrangement. Here at TutorEye, we can help you with all working aspects of  life that are engineered at molecular level.


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Right from uncovering NH₃, CH₃OH, CH₄, H₂O, HCl, CH₃Cl, SO₂, H₂S, HClO, HBr intermolecular forces - we’ve a top solver to assist you with definitions and formulas.

 

Whether you need help in citing examples or want to know answers about the properties of 4 states of matter- we can provide explanations in time. 

 

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Our academicians will help you arrive at a far-detailed conclusion by citing examples and elucidating how matter is composed and united in very different ways.

 

 

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Frequently Asked Questions

 

 

How are intermolecular forces related to the states of matter? 


The state of a substance (solid, liquid and gas) depends on the intermolecular forces and kinetic energy of the molecules in that substance. The molecules of a substance have some kinetic energy which keeps the molecules in motion. The intermolecular forces in a substance, tries to keep the molecules closer. 


In gases, the kinetic energy is greater than the intermolecular forces causing a gas to expand.


In liquids, the intermolecular forces are strong enough to keep the molecules together but not strong enough to keep the molecules fixed.


In solids, intermolecular forces are strong enough to keep the molecules fixed at one position.

 


What state of matter has no intermolecular forces?


There is no state without any kind of intermolecular forces. However, out of all the three states, solids, liquids and gases, Gases have the weakest intermolecular forces called Van der Waals forces. The kinetic energy of the molecules is greater than the intermolecular forces. As a result of which the gas molecules don’t stay fixed to one place.

 


How do intermolecular forces affect the properties of matter? 


Intermolecular forces try to keep the molecules of a substance closer. There are various types of intermolecular forces that can exist in a substance. Van der Waals dispersion forces, Van der Waals forces, dipole-dipole interactions, Hydrogen bonding, Ionic bonds.


Van der Waals dispersion forces are weakest among all other intermolecular forces and ionic bonds are strongest. Presence of Van der Waals forces means it's easy to break those molecules apart.On the other hand, strong ionic bonds ensure a higher amount of energy would be required to break those molecules apart. This affects the physical properties of the substance like boiling point, melting point and freezing point. With stronger intermolecular forces the value of boiling point and melting point and freezing point increases and the value of the vapor pressure decreases. 

 

 

Which state of matter has the highest number of intermolecular forces?


Solid state has the highest number and strongest intermolecular forces among all three states. The intermolecular forces in a solid molecular solid consist of Van der Waals forces, dispersion forces, hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole interactions. For example, Ice is held together by hydrogen bonds and dry ice is held together by dispersion forces. The strong intermolecular forces in solids result in fixed position of molecules as they just vibrate on their positions.
 

 

 

 

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