It is the branch of chemistry that deals with the flow of heat or energy from system to surroundings or vice versa.
The following terms are as–
The part of the universe containing matter.
The part of the universe other than the system, which can interact with it and it is separated by a boundary.
A system which depend on mass or quantity i.e. Volume, energy, enthalpy, entropy etc.
A system which do not depend on mass OR amount the system i.e. Temperature, pressure, density, concentration.
It is the part of internal energy which is transferred from one body to another maintaining the temperature difference
Work is done by the gas molecules in a vessel applying compression or expansion through a constant external pressure via piston at certain conditions.
W = P(Vf -Vi)
(a) If the gas expands, work is said to be done by the system. I
W will be positive.
If the gas is compressed, work is said to be done on the system.
work done is negative
The process at constant pressure condition.
The process at constant temperature conditions.
The process at constant volume conditions.
The slow process which maintains the equilibrium state is a reversible process whereas the other which have the change in states from initial to final irrespective of the equilibrium is an irreversible process.
It is defined as the sum total of kinetic and potential energies constituting atoms/molecules of a system is called the internal energy of the system.
(a) ΔU is taken as positive - internal energy of the system increases.
(b) ΔU is taken as negative - internal energy of the system decreases.
When two systems B and C ( initially not related to each other ) are in thermal equilibrium with a third system A at certain temperature conditions then these first two systems will maintain a new thermal equilibrium of B AND C .
It is based on the law of conservation of energy
The change in a system’s internal energy is equal to the sum of heat added to the system from its surroundings and work done ON the system. dU = dQ+dW
Based on the shortcoming of the first law, the second law was introduced.
Heat cannot not flow spontaneously from a colder region to a hotter region thus, for all closed systems in an equilibrium state a new term is introduced as entropy as a maximum and no energy available to do useful work. This measures the degree of randomness.
The entropy of a perfect crystalline lattice of an element in its most stable form tends to be zero as the temperature approaches absolute zero.
KB = Boltzmann constant
W = No. of microstates
Q1 Second law of thermodynamics tell us about the -
I. spontaneity of the reaction
II. Direction of flow of heat or energy equilibrium state
III. Reversible and Irreversible process
Ans1. I, II and III
Q2. Calculate the work done on a system absorbing 120 joules of heat , with an internal energy of 150 Joules.
(a) +130 J
(b) +30 J
(c) -130 J
(d) -30 J
Ans B) +30 J
dU = dQ+dW
W = = 150-120 J
Q3. Calculate the external pressure applied by a gas to change a volume from 3 litre to 6 litre with a work done of 15Joules at room temperature.
Ans 0.05 atm
given initial volume = 3 litre
Final volume = 6 litre
Work done = -15J 1 litre atm = 101.3
W=- P????͎ V
-15 = -P ( 6-3)
0.149 L atm = P (3)
Thermodynamics chemistry is credited with providing insights and expansion of knowledge in various other fields. It deals with the nature of the role of entropy during the process of chemical reactions. The study of elements in different types of temperature is what we call chemical thermodynamics. Simply put, it deals with transformation of energy.
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The first law of thermodynamics: It is also known as the law of conservation of energy states that energy can neither be created nor be destroyed but can be transferred from one form to another.
The second law of thermodynamics: It states that in an isolated system, the entropy increases with time.
The third law of thermodynamic: It states that for a perfect crystalline structure at zero temperature, the entropy would be zero.
Thermodynamics is the study of different concepts of heat and temperature and the inter-conversions of heat and other forms of energy.
The second law of thermodynamics states that in an isolated system, the entropy increases with time.
The 1st law of thermodynamics is given as ΔU = Q – W.
Here, ΔU = change in internal energy of a system.
Q = net heat transfer.
W = the net work done.