Memorize important Physics terms, definitions, formulas, equations and concepts and always stay prepared for Physics homework and exams.
Any push or pull that brings about a change in state of motion or changes shape of an object is called force. Since it has both magnitude and direction, it is a vector quantity and the SI unit is Newton (N). Mathematically it is the product of mass with acceleration of the object. Based on interaction, forces are of 3 types namely- Field force, Contact force and String force or Tension.
When a rigid object moves or rotates around a fixed reference point (axis) in a curved path then such motion under consideration is called rotational motion and aspects of this motion are studied under rotational dynamics which includes concept of moment of inertia, angular displacement, angular velocity, angular momentum, angular acceleration, torque and rotational energy etc.
When an object changes its position with respect to a reference point in a given time interval then the object is said to be in motion. This means that any discussion about motion is irrelevant if we do not consider the reference frame. These reference frames are imaginary points which we consider to study motion. Inertial and non-inertial frames are their two types. A motion may be translatory or rotational.
It is the branch of applied physics in which we study about the movement of fluid substances such as liquid and gases. It has several branches such as Aerodynamics- Study of air and other gases in motion, Hydrodynamics- Study of liquid in motion. It has several applications in our day to day life like weather forecasting, mass flow rate of oil through pipeline, measuring blood flow in an organism's body etc.
A quantitative property of an object that is used to perform a work and generate heat or in other words it is the capacity of doing work is called energy. Energy is always conserved that means it can transform but cannot be created or destroyed. Since it has only magnitude, it is a scalar quantity and SI unit of energy is Joule. Energy has various forms such as kinetic energy, potential energy, chemical energy, thermal energy, electrical energy, photo energy, heat and work etc.
The quantity of motion possessed by an object or mass in motion is called momentum. Mathematically it’s magnitude is the product of mass of object and its velocity. Since it has magnitude as well as direction, it is a vector quantity and the SI unit of momentum is kgm/s. It is denoted by “P”.
Heat is the form of energy that is transferred between systems or objects with different temperatures. The flow of heat is always from high temperature to low temperature. Heat is also referred to as thermal energy. It is a scalar quantity and its SI unit is Joule.
Term “thermo” means heat and “dynamics” means power or force causing motion. The branch of science that deals with the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter or in other words it is concerned with the storage, transformation and dissipation of energy. There are a few thermodynamics laws which are universal in their utility.
A wave can be defined as a periodic disturbance that travels through a medium from one location to another, transporting energy without transporting matter is referred to as a wave. Each individual particle of the medium is temporarily displaced and returns to its original equilibrium position within a fixed time interval. The periodic disturbance may be transverse or longitudinal. Example of transverse wave is light, x rays etc (they do not require any medium for propagation) and example of longitudinal wave is sound wave, mechanical wave etc. (They require a medium for propagation).
These are two related phenomena produced by electric and magnetic forces. Electric as well as magnetic force are the result of charge movement. Together they form electro-magnetism.
Light is an electromagnetic radiation that refers to the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum corresponding to the wavelength range of 400nm to 760nm which has transverse vibrations means it has transverse waves. It does not require any medium for propagation. The speed of light in vacuum is approx. 3 lakhs meter per second. Light is made of photon particles which have particles as well as wave nature or call dual nature.
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Question:- A wooden box of mass 5 kg lying on a smooth surface when given a velocity of 10 m/s is stopped. Then the coefficient of friction is 0.04. Calculate the time taken by the box to stop.
Answer:- As in figure you can see a wooden box placed on smooth surface.
Given that :
Mass of wooden box = 5 kg
Initial velocity given to box = 10 m/s Coefficient of Friction = 0.04
Now , Here first we have to calculate acceleration And then we can calculate time.
As force of friction is given by
F = µN
Where F is force of friction and
N is normal reaction on the box
As we know that N = mg
Using g = 10 m/s2
N = (5 kg)(10 m/s2) N = 50 N
Now , Force of friction can be given by F = µN
F = (0.04)(50 N)
Also now the equation can be given as
F = ma = -µmg a = -µg
a = -(0.04)(10)
a = -0.4 m/s2
v = u + at
0 = 10 + (-0.4)t
0.4 t = 10
t = 10/0.4
t = 25 seconds
Question:- A sailor observes his boat moving up and down periodically, due to water waves. It takes 4.9s for the boat to travel from its highest point to its lowest, a total distance of 0.6 m . The fisherman sees that the wave crests are separated by 5.8 m . How fast in the units of m/s are the waves travelling?
Answer:- As given above time taken by boat to travel from highest to lowest point = 4.9 s
time taken by boat from highest to again highest point = 4.9 × 2 = 9. 8 s
So time period for one wave = 9.8 s
Now the distance between two crests = 5.8 m So wavelength(▲) of the wave is = 5.8 m
Now as we know that frequency = 1/t
f = 1/9.8 = 0.102 s-1
Using formula for wavelength as
▲ = v
5.8 = v 0.102
v = 5.8× 0.102
v = 0.5916 mƒs
Thus , waves travel with a speed of 0.5916 m/s.
Question:- An ideal gas absorbs 800 joule of heat while doing the work. The change in internal energy of the gas is 100 calorie. Calculate the work done by the gas.
Answer:- As given:
Amount of heat absorbed (OQ) = 800 Joule
Change in internal energy(OU) of gas = 200 calorie = 100 × 4.186 = 418.6 J
According to first law of thermodynamic
OQ = OU + OW OW = OQ - OU
OW = 800 - 418.6 = 381.4 J
Thus work done by gas is 381.4 Joule.
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