A force is a push or pull that acts on an object due to the interaction with another object either by physical contact or due to action from a distance.
The types of forces that act when interacting objects are physically contacting each other. For example, frictional forces, normal forces, tensional forces, applied forces, and air resistance forces.
The types of forces that act when interacting objects are physically separated from each other. For example, gravitational force, magnetic force, and electrostatic force.
The force of attraction between two bodies separated by a distance having corresponding masses would be:
Where, is a universal constant.
Also, gravity is the force of attraction exerted by the earth on objects.
Where, is the acceleration due to gravity.
When two bodies are relatively at rest and separated by a distance having corresponding charges . Then, the magnitude of force would be:
Where, is a constant.
The magnitude of force due to the state of compression or extension of spring would be:
Where, the spring constant is , and the change in spring length is .
The reaction force which acts at the perpendicular to the contact surface. It is denoted by , or .
The force exerted by the contact surface to the object, when the object makes an effort to change its position.
Where, is the coefficient of friction.
Question 1: Two charged particles, each with of charge, are separated by a distance of . Find the magnitude of the force between them.
Explanation: We have given charge of particle, and distance between them.
We will use the formula:
And, we have, . Also, .
Final answer: The magnitude of the force would be .
Question 2: Calculate the force acting on a block due to gravity. The block has a mass of .
Explanation: We have given the mass of the block. And, acceleration due to gravity is .
Final answer: The force of attraction due to gravity would be .
Question 3: Calculate the magnitude of force required to pull a spring . The spring constant is .
Explanation: We have given spring constant and elongation due to pull force.
Final answer: The magnitude of the force would be .
A push or pull upon an object, or any interaction, when unopposed changes the direction of that object is called Force. As a vector quantity it has both direction and magnitude.
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Intermolecular force or IMF is the force that applies between the molecules. The IMF between molecules is a week force. However, it is responsible for determining the physical properties of a substance.
Magnetic forces are repulsive, or attractive force, that is caused due to motion of charges. Objects having charges moving in the same direction will result in attractive magnetic force. Whereas, objects having charges moving in opposite directions, would have a repulsive magnetic force.
The force acts on an object due to the interaction with another object, either by physical contact or due to action from a distance.
A force when acts on an object could results in moving the object from its initial position, increasing or decreasing the speed of any object, or it could also deform the shape of the object.
Forces can affect the motion of an object by decreasing or increasing the speed of the object. If the magnitude of the force is greater, it can also stop the motion of the object. And, even change the direction of the motion.
It can be measured using a newton meter. Newton meter or force meter has a spring attached to a hook. When a force acts on the hook, the spring stretches. And, we can measure the corresponding reading, which will be the magnitude of force applied.
Force is measured in newtons, and the unit has the symbol N.
Forces have a great impact on our everyday lives. Let us analyze the effect of some forces.
Friction Force: This force helps us to walk, without friction force we could not walk easily. Imagine, someone walking on snow or ice. You might see, the person having difficulties in walking with a regular shoe. This is because there is less friction on that surface.
Gravitational Force of Attraction: Let us focus on the gravitational force of attraction by the earth. If you hit a ball, you will see that it will be attracted by the earth and after a few moments, the ball will no longer remain on air. Without the gravitational attraction, the ball would have continued going upward!!
The force can affect the motion of an object in different ways depending upon the direction in which force is applied, and the magnitude of the force.
If force is applied in the same direction as the motion of the object, it will increase its speed. And, if the direction of the application is the opposite, it will decrease the object’s speed.
Also, if the applied force has a greater magnitude, and acts in the opposite direction of motion. Then, it can stop the motion of the object, or even change the direction of motion.
No, we can not see the force physically. But, we can feel it. And, we can see the changes made by the application of force.
Gravitational force, magnetic force, and electrostatic force are some examples of non-contact force. They act without physically interacting with the objects. Their action is from a distance.