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Quantitative Relations Between Transfer Processes: 


Quantitative relations between transfer processes deal with the transfer of heat and mass across two bodies. The transfer of heat and mass is driven by the non-equilibrium thermal state of bodies. It involves the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy between physical systems through various mechanisms such as conduction, convection, and radiation. 



Quantitative Relations Between Transfer Processes Sample Questions:



Question 1: Which of the following occur during the mass transfer?


a) Difference in concentration                        b) Difference in pressure 
c) Difference in temperature                          d) Difference in chemical potential 


Answer: d) Difference in chemical potential

Explanation: Mass transfer occurs to achieve equilibrium or to minimize the energy of the system. Mass transfer can occur even if there is no difference in concentration, pressure, and temperature. 



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Question 2: ____________ velocity is used to calculate the mass average velocity of the mixture.


a) Bulk                              b) Mean
c) Instantaneous               d) None of these 

Answer: b) Mean

Explanation: Mean velocity is used to calculate the mass average velocity of the mixture. 


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Question 3: ______________ forms the connecting link between the velocity and temperature profiles.


a) Biot number                       b) Prandtl number 
c) Stanton number                 d) Fourier number 

Answer: b) Prandtl number

Explanation: The temperature and velocity profile becomes identical when the Prandtl number is equal to one. 



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Question 4: Which number forms the connecting link between the temperature and concentration profiles?


a) Prandtl number                 b) Schmidt number 
c) Fourier number                 d) Lewis number 

Answer: d) Lewis number  

Explanation: The temperature and concentration profile are identical when lewis’s number is equal to unity.



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Question 5: Which one of the following has the highest emissivity?


a) Aluminium                       b) Polished copper 
c) Tarnished copper            d) Marble 

Answer: c) Tarnished copper 

Explanation: The emissivity of tarnished copper is 0.75 while that of polished aluminum, aluminum foil, and copper are 0.03, 0.05, and 0.03 respectively.



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Question 6: The concentration of the two phases in a closed system at the interphase _____________.


a) continuously changes                    b) never changes 
c) becomes zero                                d) increases 

Answer: b) never changes

Explanation: The concentration changes only if the component of the two phases is added or removed. Generally, Interphase occurs at equilibrium. Once the additional component is added to a system at equilibrium, the concentration changes until it becomes uniform but differs from the previous.



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Question 7: In steady-state conditions, concentration at any point never ________.


a) becomes zero                       b) decreases 
c) increases                              d) changes 

Answer: d) changes

Explanation: Generally, the net transfer remains the same at a steady-state condition as the concentration will be the same at every point. 



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Question 8: According to Lewis and Whitman theory, the departure from concentration equilibrium at the Interphase is due to __________


a) low mass transfer rates                b) high mass transfer rates 
c) moderate mass transfer rate        d) None of these 

Answer: b) high mass transfer rates 

Explanation: Theoretically proved by Lewis and Whitman, that if the mass transfer rates are higher the concentration deviates from equilibrium.



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Question 9: The equilibrium concentrations in the gas and the liquid phases, in mole fraction, give rise to a curve known as


a) Differential distribution curve 
b) Differential concentration curve
c) Equilibrium distribution curve 
d) Equilibrium concentration curve 

Answer: c) Equilibrium distribution curve

Explanation: The equilibrium distribution curve represents the phase-phase equilibrium curve with the coordinates of mole fractions in both phases.


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Question 10: The operation where enthalpy remains constant throughout the initial and final condition is ___________. 


a) adiabatic                   b) isothermal 
c) non-adiabatic            d) non-isothermal


Answer: a) adiabatic

Explanation: In an adiabatic condition, there is no addition or removal of heat. Therefore, the enthalpy remains constant. 



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