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## Quantitative Relations Between Transfer Processes:

Quantitative relations between transfer processes deal with the transfer of heat and mass across two bodies. The transfer of heat and mass is driven by the non-equilibrium thermal state of bodies. It involves the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy between physical systems through various mechanisms such as conduction, convection, and radiation.

## Quantitative Relations Between Transfer Processes Sample Questions:

Question 1: Which of the following occur during the mass transfer?

a) Difference in concentration                        b) Difference in pressure
c) Difference in temperature                          d) Difference in chemical potential

Answer: d) Difference in chemical potential

Explanation: Mass transfer occurs to achieve equilibrium or to minimize the energy of the system. Mass transfer can occur even if there is no difference in concentration, pressure, and temperature.

Question 2: ____________ velocity is used to calculate the mass average velocity of the mixture.

a) Bulk                              b) Mean
c) Instantaneous               d) None of these

Explanation: Mean velocity is used to calculate the mass average velocity of the mixture.

Question 3: ______________ forms the connecting link between the velocity and temperature profiles.

a) Biot number                       b) Prandtl number
c) Stanton number                 d) Fourier number

Explanation: The temperature and velocity profile becomes identical when the Prandtl number is equal to one.

Question 4: Which number forms the connecting link between the temperature and concentration profiles?

a) Prandtl number                 b) Schmidt number
c) Fourier number                 d) Lewis number

Explanation: The temperature and concentration profile are identical when lewis’s number is equal to unity.

Question 5: Which one of the following has the highest emissivity?

a) Aluminium                       b) Polished copper
c) Tarnished copper            d) Marble

Explanation: The emissivity of tarnished copper is 0.75 while that of polished aluminum, aluminum foil, and copper are 0.03, 0.05, and 0.03 respectively.

Question 6: The concentration of the two phases in a closed system at the interphase _____________.

a) continuously changes                    b) never changes
c) becomes zero                                d) increases

Explanation: The concentration changes only if the component of the two phases is added or removed. Generally, Interphase occurs at equilibrium. Once the additional component is added to a system at equilibrium, the concentration changes until it becomes uniform but differs from the previous.

Question 7: In steady-state conditions, concentration at any point never ________.

a) becomes zero                       b) decreases
c) increases                              d) changes

Explanation: Generally, the net transfer remains the same at a steady-state condition as the concentration will be the same at every point.

Question 8: According to Lewis and Whitman theory, the departure from concentration equilibrium at the Interphase is due to __________

a) low mass transfer rates                b) high mass transfer rates
c) moderate mass transfer rate        d) None of these

Answer: b) high mass transfer rates

Explanation: Theoretically proved by Lewis and Whitman, that if the mass transfer rates are higher the concentration deviates from equilibrium.

Question 9: The equilibrium concentrations in the gas and the liquid phases, in mole fraction, give rise to a curve known as

a) Differential distribution curve
b) Differential concentration curve
c) Equilibrium distribution curve
d) Equilibrium concentration curve

Explanation: The equilibrium distribution curve represents the phase-phase equilibrium curve with the coordinates of mole fractions in both phases.

Question 10: The operation where enthalpy remains constant throughout the initial and final condition is ___________.

Explanation: In an adiabatic condition, there is no addition or removal of heat. Therefore, the enthalpy remains constant.