4.For Tutor Adil B Only! For Tutor Adil B Only! For Tutor Adil B Only! For Tutor Adil B Only! For Tutor Adil B Only!
7.Photon has mass or not? I am confused, since we say, it has zero rest mass but how does it is affected by gravity then?
It is a hypothetical gas composed of many particles which has negligible intermolecular force of attractions.
This ideal gas is useful because it obeys the ideal gas equation.
That is, PV=nRT where R is gas constant
Assumptions taken -
The volume of the molecule is negligible as compared to the volume of the container.
All collisions are elastic.
No force of attractions exist between the molecules.
It is the branch of thermodynamics that explains the molecular properties to predict the macroscopic quantities of compounds.
Here, in the molecular statistics thermodynamics, there is the energy levels of an individual molecule to find the thermodynamic properties of a system that contains non-interacting molecules of a substance.
It involves the movement or transfer of mass, energy or matter within the thermodynamical system that are not in equilibrium.
There are 3 areas of study
This is also known by “THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY “ which relates that the energy of the universe remains the same.
This stated that the total energy of the universe remain same and describing the relation between internal energy, heat absorbed or released and work done on or by the system.
W = +( positive) WORK DONE ON THE SYSTEM BY THE SURROUNDINGS
W= - (negative) WORK DONE BY THE SYSTEM ON THE SURROUNDINGS
Q = + (positive) Heat absorbed
Q=-(negative) heat released
Reversible work done
First law of thermodynamics defines the quantity of heat transfer but do not give any idea of the direction.
So, by 2nd law – it focuses on the direction to which the heat or energy flows and introducing a term called Entropy for every spontaneous or non spontaneous process.
And states that,
In an isolated system, the entropy of the universe will always increases.
Entropy is Denoted by ∆S
Also, for spontaneous process, entropy is positive and for non spontaneous it is negative.
∆S(universe) = ∆S(system) + ∆S (surrounding)
∆G = Gibbs free energy, ∆H = enthalpy , ∆S = entropy and T = Temperature
It states that the entropy of a perfect crystalline solid at absolute zero is 0
S=k lnW = kln 1 = 0
It means at absolute 0K , All modes of motion (vibration , rotation and translation )stops
It is also called Real gas which has some known magnitude of intermolecular force of attraction and they occupy a given amount of space and have the ability to interact with each other.
Also, For the determination of deviation of a real gas from the behaviour of an ideal gas , it is expressed by term Z as compressibility factor.
The ideal gas equation can be modified into the van der Waal equation to apply to real gas where a and b are constants
It is the state of the matter lies between solids and gases and The attraction between the particles in a liquid keeps the volume of liquid constant.
Some properties of liquids-
Question1: Calculate the Gibbs free energy at 200K when enthalpy and entropy changes are -113 KJ/mol and -145J/Kmol ?
= -113000 – 200 (-145)
= -8300 J/mol
Question2: Calculate the workdone by a piston of a container, which has 200J of internal energy to absorb the 5 joule.
Using first law of thermodynamics,
-195 J Which means, 195j of work is done by the system
Quesion3: Calculate the work done of a reversible system which apply a pressure of 2atm to change the volume from 5L to 10L ?
Reversible work done
= -10atm Litre 1atm L=101.325J
-10 101.325 = - 1013.2J
Q1. Real gases follow ideal gas equation –
A) low temperature and high pressure
B) high temperature and low pressure
C) low temperature only
D) no change in conditions
Q2. In which of the process, the system is spontaneous.
A) Freezing of water
B) dissolution Of Iodine in water
C) Burning of a wood
D) Melting of an ice
Q3. At Absolute 0K , entropy of is zero for
A) Perfectly crystalline solid
B) non crystalline
D) glass made
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Thermodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with the processes of change in temperature, transformation of energy, relationships between heat and work. The study of thermodynamics gained popularity in the 19th century when engineers wanted to improve the efficiency of the steam engine. The study of thermodynamics focuses mainly on the four laws of thermodynamics.
According to this law of thermodynamics, if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a 3rd system, then they must be in thermal equilibrium with each other.
This stated that the total energy of the universe remains the same and describes the relation between internal energy, heat absorbed or released and work done on or by the system.
In an isolated system, the entropy of the universe will always increase.
It states that the entropy of a perfect crystalline solid at absolute zero is always zero.
Basic thermodynamics is taught in most engineering degree programs as well as it is a part of the high school physics curriculum. An introductory background to concepts of thermodynamics in high school as well as knowledge of calculus helps one to become successful and make a career in the field of thermodynamics.
Thermodynamics is also a prerequisite for advanced physics courses, like heat transfer, internal combustion engines, gas dynamics etc. Students completing a bachelor’s or master’s course in thermodynamics can lead to an exciting career as a thermodynamics engineer, engineering technician, or an expert thermodynamics physicist.
The application of thermodynamics can be found in the field of engineering from chemical thermodynamics, thermodynamics physics, to aerospace, mechanical and electrical engineering.
Learning Thermodynamics may become a challenge to many high school & college students if the thermodynamics basics are not clear and a strong foundation is not established in the early introductory courses.
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Thermodynamics can be fun only if you devote time to fully understand its process and terminologies. To ensure you can learn it easily you must:
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We know there are various forms of energy like heat, work etc. Thermodynamic mainly deals with heat and relates the conversion of heat to other forms of energy. It also explains the transfer of heat from one system to another and relates other thermodynamic terms like enthalpy, entropy, free energy etc.
According to libretext.org, there are four laws of Thermodynamics. They are as follows:
If you need help in understanding these laws or the principles in question, you can avail help from our best academicians. With our help, you can uncomplicate the chapters and Thermodynamics basics in the shortest possible time and get better grades.
According to wikipedia, there are many scholars who are associated with different laws of Thermodynamics:
These laws were a result of developed work on previous postulates and theorems given by earlier philosophers and mathematicians. To know more, get help from our certified professionals to uncover the secrets behind these laws and so much more.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics that deals with the study between heat and energy.
Thermodynamic properties are defined as characteristic of a system capable to specifying the system's state in the system.
The 1st law of thermodynamics that energy neither t be created nor destroyed. it can only be transferred from one form to another form.
The 2nd law of thermodynamics is about the quality of energy. It states that energy is transferred or transformed more and more of it is wasted.
The central concept of thermodynamics is that of energy and the ability to do work.
Science of the relationship between heat, work, temperature, and energy is called thermodynamics . thermo(heat) and Dynamics (transfer).
The first law of thermodynamics is that it does not say anything about the direction of flow of heat.
The 2nd law of thermodynamics only applicable to the closed system.