1.Part I. Reaction Paper
Read and understand the text below. Follow outline in writing your reaction paper at least 250-750
paper at least 250-750 words.
2. Thesis Statement
3. Supporting details
The Digital Divide: The Challenge of Technology and Equity
(1) Information technology is influence the way many of us live and work today. We use the internet to look and apply for jobs, shop, conduct research, make airline reservations, and explore areas of interest. We use Email and internet to communicate instantaneously with friends and business associates around the world. Computers are commonplace in homes and the workplace.
(2) Although the number of internet users is growing exponentially each year, most of the worlds population does not have access to computers of the internet. Only 6 percent of the population in the developing countries are connected to telephones. Although more than 94 percent of U.S households have telephones, only 56 percent
have personal computers at home and 50 percent have internet access. The lack of what most of us would consider a basic communication necessity the telephone does not occur just in developing nations. On some Native American reservations only 60 percent of the residents have a telephone. The move to wireless connectivity may eliminate the need for telephone lines, but it does not remove the barrier to equipment costs.
(3) Who has internet access? The digital divide between the populations who have access to the internet and information technology tools and those who dont is based on income, race, education, household type, and geographic location, but the gap between groups is narrowing. Eighty-five percent of households with an income
over $75,000 have internet access, compared with less than 20 percent of the households with income under $15,000. Over 80 percent of college graduates use the internet as compared with 40 percent of high school completers and 13 percent of high school dropouts. Seventy-two percent of household with two parents have internet access; 40 percent of female, single parent households do. Differences are also found among households and families from different racial and ethnic groups. Fifty-five percent of white households, 31 percent of black households, 32 percent of Latino households, 68 percent of Asian or Pacific Islander households, and 39 percent of American Indian, Eskimos, or Aleut households have access to the internet. The number of internet users who are children under nine years old and persons over fifty has more than triple since 1997. Households in inner cities are less likely to have computers and internet access than those in urban and rural areas, but the differences are no more than 6 percent.
(4) Another problem that exacerbates these disparities is that African-American, Latinos, and Native Americans hold few of the jobs in information technology. Women about 20 percent of these jobs and receiving fewer than 30 percent of the Bachelors degrees in computer and information science. The result is that women and members of the most oppressed ethnic group are not eligible for the jobs with the highest salaries at graduation. Baccalaureate candidates with degree in computer science were offered the highest salaries of all new college graduates.
(5) Do similar disparities exist in schools? Ninety-eight percent of schools in the country are wired with at least one internet connection. The number of classrooms with internet connection differs by the income level of students. Using the percentage of students who are eligible for free lunches at a school to determine income level, we see that the higher percentage of the schools with more affluent students have wired classrooms than those with high concentrations of low-income students.
(6) Access to computers and the internet will be important in reducing disparities between groups. It will require higher equality across diverse groups whose members develop knowledge and skills in computer and information technologies. The field today is overrepresented by white males. If computers and the internet are to be used to promote equality, they have to become accessible to schools cannot currently afford the equipment which needs to be updated regularly every three years or so. However, access alone is not enough; Students will have to be interacting with the technology in authentic settings. As technology has become a tool for learning in almost all courses taken by students, it will be seen as a means to an end rather than an end in itself. If it is used in culturally relevant ways, all students can benefit from its power.
4.students are expected to research and compose a paper based on the application of concepts and theories examined in class.
ies examined in class. This paper is not a literature review, though a literature review is part of your work. As this course takes place in a compressed timeline, I provided some suggestions for research topics. Feel free to use one of these as a springboard or propose your own.
At the end of the second week of class, students submit a three-page research paper prospectus. A research prospectus is a preliminary plan for conducting a study. This is not a detailed and technical research proposal, but rather, an analysis of the issues likely confronted in such a study. In essence, it is a preliminary proposal of work.
Research Paper Prospectus Elements
To complete the Research Paper Prospectus, consider the following elements. While the prospectus is limited to three pages of body content, remember, students must cover each of these areas as relevant to the plan for research:
Research Problem. What is the research problem? A problem is a situation when left untreated, produces a negative consequence for a group, an institution, or a(n) individual(s). What makes it a problem? For whom? Who says so?
Assumptions. On what assumptions is the work based? Which assumptions are verifiable in literature? Which assumptions are speculative?
Theoretical Issues. What theoretical issues arise from the study? For example, "theoretically," how is the problem and suspected results explained to other scholars? Is there a behavior view? A social systems view? Are there other theoretical orientations to consider in the study's design?
Literature Review. What, in general, does the literature say about the topic? While more development is expected for the final paper, a review of major theories, research, and writers in the field is needed.
Research Questions. Based on the problem, what are the research questions to be answered? How and why will answering the questions contribute to solving the research problem? Remember....a research question can only be answered with empirical data or information.
General Research Plan. In general, what research is necessary to answer the research question. What kind of data is needed? Specify the type, such as surveys, observations, or interviews. Who is to be studied and why? How is the data reduced and made sense of? How is the quality of the data assured?
Anticipated Difficulties and Pitfalls. What kind of difficulties and pitfalls are expected in a study of this nature? What can be done to prevent them or minimize their effects?
Anticipated Benefits. Who will benefit from the fact this research is undertaken? How? Why? Who might be disturbed by this proposed study? How? Why?
Paper Format Requirements
The Research Paper Prospectus is presented in standard APA 7 format, with a cover page, running head, body, and references list. The cover page and references do not count toward the three-page requirement. The body uses headers and in-text citations in the manner prescribed by APA. Students should include any references they know at the time they submit the prospectus, though it is expected the references may change or increase in number. Full and complete adherence to APA is required.
As APA format is the rule, remember the formatting rules shown on the Sample Paper (Links to an external site.):
Times New Roman, 12pt
1" margins on all sides
Double spaced, with extra line spaces removed (see below)
Page numbers in the upper right
Two spaces after concluding punctuation
150-250 word abstract with keywords
APA-style in-text citations and quote format. Use the Purdue OWL in-text citation information (Links to an external site.)to help you.
Alphabetical (by author) reference page with correct reference format. DO NOT trust the reference generator in your word processing program. It is WRONG! Use the Purdue OWL references information (Links to an external site.)to correctly structure references and do so manually.
6.A manufacturing company is engaged in producing three types of products: A,B and C. The production department produces, each day,
epartment produces, each day, components sufficient to make 50 units of A, 25 units of B and 30 units of C. The management is confronted with the problem of optimizing the daily production of products in assembly department where only 100 man-hours are available daily to assemble the products. The following additional information is available.
Type of product Profit Contribution per unit of Product (Rs) Assembly time pee product (hrs)
A 12 0.8
B 20 1.7
C 45 2.5
The company has a daily order commitment for 20 units of product A and a total of 5 units of product B and C. Formulate this problem as a LP model so as to maximize the total profit.
You are asked to carry out a study on behalf of a business analytics specialised consultancy on a subsample
on a subsample of weekly data from Randall’s Supermarket, one of the biggest in the UK. Randall’s marketing management team wishes to identify trends and patterns in a sample of weekly data collected for a number of their loyalty cardholders during a 26-week period. The data includes information on the customers’ gender, age, shopping frequency per week and shopping basket price. Randall’s operates two different types of stores (convenient stores and superstores) but they also sell to customers via an online shopping platform. The collected data are from all three different types of stores. Finally, the data provides information on the consistency of the customer’s shopping basket regarding the type of products purchased. These can vary from value products, to brand as well as the supermarket’s own high-quality product series Randall’s Top. As a business analyst you are required to analyse those data, make any necessary modifications in order to determine whether for any single customer it is possible to predict the value of their shopping basket.
Randall’s marketing management team is only interested in identifying whether the spending of the potential customer will fall in one of three possible groups including:
• Low spender (shopping basket value of £25 or less)
• Medium Spender (shopping basket value between £25.01 and £70) and
• High spenders (shopping basket greater than £70)
For the purpose of your analysis you are provided with the data set Randall’s.xls. You have to decide, which method is appropriate to apply for the problem under consideration and undertake the necessary analysis. Once you have completed this analysis, write a report for the Randall’s marketing management team summarising your findings but also describing all necessary steps undertaken in the analysis. The manager is a competent business analyst himself/herself so the report can include technical terms, although you should not exceed five pages. Screenshots and supporting materials can be included in the appendix.
After completing your analysis, you should submit a report that consists of two parts. Part A being a non-technical summary of your findings and Part B a detailed report of the analysis undertaken with more details.
Part A: A short report for the Head of Randall’s Marketing Management (20 per cent). This should briefly explain the aim of the project, a clear summary and justification of the methods considered as well as an overview of the results.
Although, the Head of Randall’s Marketing Management team who will receive this summary is a competent business analytics practitioner, the majority of the other team members have little knowledge of statistical modelling and want to know nothing about the technical and statistical underpinning of the techniques used in this analysis. This report should be no more than two sides of A4 including graphs, tables, etc. In this report you should include all the objectives of this analysis, summary of data and results as well as your recommendations (if any).
Part B: A technical report on the various stages of the analysis (80 per cent).
The analysis should be carried out using the range of analytics tools discussed:
• SPSS Statistics
Ensure that the exercise references:
• Binary and multinomial logistic regression
• Linear vs Logistic regression
• Logit Model with odds Ratio
• Co-efficients and Chi Squared
• MLR co-efficients
• Assessing usefulness of MLR model
• Interpreting a model
• Assessing over-all model fit with Psuedo R-Squared measures
• Classification accuracy (Hit Ratio)
• Wald Statistic
• Odd ratio exp(B)
• Ratio of the probability of an event happening vs not happening
• Ratio of the odds after a unit change in the predictor to the original odds
• Residuals analysis
• Cook’s distance
• Adequacy (with variance inflation factor VIF and tolerance statistic)
• Outliers and influential points cannot just be removed. We need to check them (typo? – unusual data?)
• Check for multicollinearity
Write a short and concise report to explain the technical detail of what you have done for each step of the analysis.
The report should also cover the following information:
• Any type of analysis that might be useful and check whether the main assumptions behind the analyses do not hold or cannot be
• Give evidence of the understanding of the statistical tools that you are using. For example, comment on the model selection procedure and the coefficient interpretation, e.g. comment on the interpretation of the logistic regression coefficients if such a method is used and provide an example of
• Conclusions and explanation, in non-technical terms, of the main points