2.a) Carbon tetrachloride is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4. It is a
colorless liquid with a “sweet” smell.
quid with a “sweet” smell.
i. Using the ground state electron configuration and excited state electron
configuration explain the hybridization of the central Carbon (C) atom. (7 Marks)
ii. Identify the orbitals that overlap to form the C-Cl bond. Draw a diagram to show
the orbital overlap. (3 Marks)
iii. What is the bond angle of CCl4? (1 Mark)
b) Consider a Fluorine atom (F) and a Fluorine anion (F-). Which of these two species would
you expect to have a larger radius? Explain your answer. (5 Marks)
c) Explain why the first ionization energy of Aluminum (Al) is less than that of Magnesium
(Mg). (4 Marks)
d) Assume the atom Oxygen(O) can form both cationic(O+) and anionic(O-) species. Place
the following species in order of increasing first ionization energy, starting with the lowest.
O+, O, O-
a) Sea water contains roughly 28.0 g of NaCl per liter. (NaCl molar mass = 58.44 gmol-1).
i. Calculate the number of moles of NaCl in a liter of sea water. (2 Marks)
ii. Calculate the molarity of NaCl in sea water. (4 Marks)
iii. Calculate the mass by volume percent (W/V) of NaCl in sea water. (4 Marks)
8.The equation of a helix is x=2 sin 2t, y=2 cos 2t, z=3t. a) Find the arc length s from
arbitrary point (2 sin 2t, 2 cos 2t, 3t) on the helix. b) Compute the arc length from (0,2,0) to (0,-2,3π/2) c) Compute the vectors T, N and B at (0,-2,3π/2) d) Compute the curvature at (0,-2,3π/2) e) Find the angle between T and the z-axis at (0,-2,3π/2) to the nearest tenth of a degree.