1.I just need someone to look over my paper for anatomy and to just let me know what I need
t or add. I'll attach the questions, my rubric, as well as my answers I made. It would really help me out please.
1.) Choose two somatosensory receptors. Please include a description of each receptor, what they sense, and which part of the brain processes the information from the receptor.
2.) Provide a discussion of the thyroid gland. Include the following:
Description of the thyroid gland's structure and location.
Description of the cells of the thyroid gland.
Description of the hormones secreted by the thyroid gland and their functions.
Description of how thyroid hormones are controlled by hormones secreted by the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland.
Description of how the feedback system works in the cases of high or low thyroid hormone levels.
3. Describe the cardiac cycle. Include descriptions of the 3 phases, the pressure changes in each of the heart's chambers, valves are open and closed, and blood flows during each step.
My answer: 1.) Exteroceptor - receives external stimuli from outside of the body. An example, the skin (Thermoreceptors) detects the temperature of the outside area of the body.
Interceptor - receives stimuli from inside of the body. An example would be blood pressure as well as blood oxygen levels.
2.) Thyroid Gland is located near the front lower part of the neck, beneath Adam's apple. Its structure includes Thyroid Epithelial that form follicles filled with colloid - a protein-rich reservoir of the materials needed for thyroid hormone production. The cells are responsible for releasing hormones that control metabolism (Energy levels). The thyroid gland releases triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones regulate weight, energy levels, internal temperature, skin, and growth. When the hypothalamus and pituitary function well, they can detect when hormone levels are low, which causes them to produce more TRH and TSH, which stimulates the thyroid to produce hormones. When the hormone levels exceed their limit, they then have less TRH and TSH, which results in reduced hormone production by the thyroid. Feedback is when a product feeds back into its initial cycle. The Feedback includes both positive and negative feedback. Positive Feedback is when a product provides back to increase production: an example, milk production by a mother for her baby. As the baby suckles, nerve messages from the nipple cause the pituitary gland to secrete prolactin. Prolactin, in turn, stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk, so the baby suckles more. Which causes more prolactin to be secreted and more milk to is made. Negative Feedback is when a product feeds back decreases production; it brings down show if they increase past their limit. It also controls insulin secretion by the pancreas.
3.) The Cardiac Cycle takes place from the beginning of a heartbeat to the next. It contains two periods: One is when the heart muscle relaxes and refills with blood, called diastole, following a time when it begins contraction and pumping of blood, systole. Once emptied, the heart then relaxes and expands to receive another inrush of blood coming back from the lungs and other areas of the body. The atrioventricular valves remain open while the semilunar valves are closed. During the middle part of the diastole, a small amount of blood flows into the ventricles. The blood flows from the veins and passes the atria fills the ventricles. The pressure in both ventricles is close to zero as a result.
3.Spending on health care now constitutes a significant fraction of total expenditure. Understanding the efficacy of this spending is therefore
he efficacy of this spending is therefore relatively important. When it comes to contagious diseases, there are generally two strategies that can be adopted. The first involves prevention, which includes vaccinations to lower or eliminate the risk of contracting a disease. The second involves treatment of those unfortunate enough to get sick, treatment typically requires some form of a drug. Since pharmaceutical companies can produce both vaccines and drugs, we would like to understand the incentives they have to develop each type of medicine. To explore this question, consider a population of 100 consumers, 90 of whom have a low disease risk, say 10%. The remaining ten have a high risk – to make things simple, assume they are certain to contract the disease. In addition, suppose the disease generates personal harm equal to the loss of $100 for each individual when they are infected. Suppose also that pharmaceuticals of either form (vaccines or drugs) are costless to produce (once R & D has occurred) and are perfectly effective
Question 2. What price would a profit maximising monopolist charge for a vaccine? What are the monopoly profits on the vaccine? What is the efficient outcome (i.e. SMB = SMC)? What is the welfare under the monopoly and at the efficient allocation?
Question 3.Now consider the demand for the drug (assume that the vaccine is not available). Construct the demand function for the drug and plot it on a diagram. What price would a profit maximising monopolist charge for the drug? What are the monopoly profits from the drug? What is the efficient outcome? What is the welfare under the monopoly and at the efficient allocation?
Question 4. If the R&D costs of the vaccine and drug are the same, what will the pharmaceutical company do? Explain your answer in terms of the variation in the willingness to pay and the size of the R& D costs. What would a social planner do?
Question 5. What are the R&D cost for the vaccine and the R&D cost for the vaccine drug that would make a pharmaceutical company indifferent between developing the vaccine and the drug? Is the social planner indifferent in this case? Explain any difference.