quid with a “sweet” smell.
i. Using the ground state electron configuration and excited state electron
configuration explain the hybridization of the central Carbon (C) atom. (7 Marks)
ii. Identify the orbitals that overlap to form the C-Cl bond. Draw a diagram to show
the orbital overlap. (3 Marks)
iii. What is the bond angle of CCl4? (1 Mark)
b) Consider a Fluorine atom (F) and a Fluorine anion (F-). Which of these two species would
you expect to have a larger radius? Explain your answer. (5 Marks)
c) Explain why the first ionization energy of Aluminum (Al) is less than that of Magnesium
(Mg). (4 Marks)
d) Assume the atom Oxygen(O) can form both cationic(O+) and anionic(O-) species. Place
the following species in order of increasing first ionization energy, starting with the lowest.
O+, O, O-
a) Sea water contains roughly 28.0 g of NaCl per liter. (NaCl molar mass = 58.44 gmol-1).
i. Calculate the number of moles of NaCl in a liter of sea water. (2 Marks)
ii. Calculate the molarity of NaCl in sea water. (4 Marks)
iii. Calculate the mass by volume percent (W/V) of NaCl in sea water. (4 Marks)
e based on the provided data set.
You can draw the tree electronically, or draw it by hand and scan or photograph a copy—or use any other appropriate means you wish.
2. How many homoplasies are in the tree? Give the nucleotide position number(s) and tell what character states were independently derived in which species.
3. Two major clades are revealed by the tree. List the species in each clade. What can you say in general about the geographic distribution of each clade?
4. In cases where two species of Map Turtle occupy the same river system, are those species each other’s nearest relatives? Considering their phylogeny and distribution, what speciation events (including such factors as migration, vicariance, etc.) would you predict led to the species found in these rivers and their current distributions?